Adaptive Response Endocarditis

Adaptive Response

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There are various adaptive response that a body develops in dealing with certain foreign invaders. The body shapes the response regarding the attacks or the body injury due to external and internal factors. The paper depicts the various adaptive responses realized as symptoms associated with different scenario. There is the two year old scenario where one experiences sore throat and running temperature. The other scenario involves a man who is 27 year old diagnosed with Allergic contact Dermatitis and the third scenario is about depression diagnosis.

Scenario 1: Throat Infection

The described disorder involves a throat infection regarding Tonsillitis. The cause of the infection may be a streptococcus bacteria causing tonsils’ infection that further affects the surrounding parts. The associated adaptive responses are fever, and hurting throat. Jenifer experiences temperature as well as fever of the range between 101 and 103 as an adaptive response when the cells of the body tends to fight the bacterial infection. Other adaptive responses exhibited are headache, loss of appetite, and dysphasia. The fever goes on and off regardless of the mother to the child trying to control using the ibuprofen.

Jenifer in the context experiences Tympanic membranes. There is peripheral reddening as well as erythematous regarding the 4+ tonsils defused in particular exudates. The 104 level of fever remains harmless since it arises as a reaction to the infection like bacteria or viral illnesses. The viral illness lasts for about two to three days and is never always a reflection of severe illness. The high cause of the sore throat to such an age of Jenifer is likely to be viral infection concerning thoughts. There is no particular medicine for the infection, and the child ought to improve between the seventh and the tenth day of infection.

Scenario 2: Allergic contact Dermatitis

The infection or the disorder involves a 27-year old individual. The man suffers from allergic dermatitis where it encompasses the localized skin inflammation. The contact irritation is due to direct skin contact with particular substance found in the workplace. There are signs and symptoms associated with this particular disorder namely skin redness, blisters, and scales. The occurrence of the symptoms depends on the chemicals types, and the nature of the individual’s skin. It is evident that irritating chemical caused the reported symptoms like reddening of skin, and hands’ irritation.

The adaptive response associated with the body towards the localized tissues’ injury involve production of inflammation signs like spot redness, pain, swelling, and heat. The symptoms regarding the contact dermatitis may develop shortly upon handling short contact, repeated or prolonged low-exposure to particular chemical substances. The Jack’s scenario depict the exposure to chemicals of mild irritating causing itchiness and skin redness. However, there can be formation of crusts, and scales in case of continued mild irritant exposure that result to appearance of scores in the area of reddening.

The ability to change the skin properties by the substance leads to the irritation action that also allows exposure of the toxic substances to the cells. The substance also removes moisture and oil in the external skin hence reducing the skin protection ability. The fatty substance removal from the outer skin leads to the cracking and relative drying of the skin. The cell reacts with the foreign substance that cause damage of the skin in case of an encounter with body tissue and the cells. The body develops localized acute inflammation in case the tissues and cells develop a response of defense regarding the invaders. The response causes the pain, warmth, swelling, irritation, and redness. The factors contributing to severity of the contact irritation of dermatitis are chemical properties of the substance, concentration amount, and the exposure frequency.

Scenario 3: Depression

The clinical depression scenario is of a lady aged 65 years. She recently retired from working hence the indication of depression. Combinational factors cause depression namely sudden illness like diabetes or cancer, and to some extent prolonged illnesses. The family genetics cause depression where children inherit such disorder from the parents. Other causes of depression are divorce, demise or death of friends and loved ones, and low self-esteem among others. The depression regarding Martha is attributable to taking care of the 87-years old mother with difficulty to recover from her broken hips. The circumstances were beyond her expectations after the retirement hence the depression.

There are adaptive responses towards depression that include lacking interest in life, and difficulty in sleeping. Depression occurs when an individual responds to disappointments with much grief and sadness that turn into severe situations. The signs associated with depression are anorexia, insomnia, and some fatigue. Depression can have its cause from old age due to the feeling of empty, low, and lacking interest to participate in daily activities. The individual in the scenario finds it difficult to involve in daily activities, eating, sleeping, and enjoying life. Martha’s depression may obtain treatment including medication prescription, biological treatment, and psychotherapy.

Mind Map for Allergic Contact Dermatitis

A mind map involves a diagram showing concepts usually arranged radially around the central idea like say the Allergic Contact Dermatitis. The map visualizes as well as classifies ideas regarding the disorder and hence help in making decisions by the nurses. It provides complications, diagnosis, prognosis, clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, and risk factors.

The prognosis occurs when the person can avoid the irritant substance. However, the complication is brought by the secondary neurodermatitis. The diagnosis does not require any specific test, hence the Allergic contact Dermatitis is diagnosed by clinical examinations. The clinical presentations that can be observed include redness, cracking of the skin, Dryness, Inflammation, and thickening. Contamination will take place when a person’s skin is exposed to chemicals or detergents that cause the skins to be red and irritated. The exposure to abrasive substance also makes the skin itchy, red, and inflamed (Zimbron, 2008).

The Etiology for the Allergic contact Dermatitis is that it is caused by common cutaneous irritants. The causes include mechanical irritants, microtrauma like fiberglass, and other solvents like organic solvents like alcohol turpentine, hair products, ketones, chlorinated, paints and acids. Other chemicals that can cause Allergic contact Dermatitis include soap, soda, and detergents (Zimbron, 2008).

The epidemiology part of the mind map includes occupational hazards, prevalence, and Environmental factors. The environmental hazards can include repeated exposure of the skins to the irritant or repeated washing of the hands with abrasive detergents. The prevalence of Allergic contact Dermatitis is 69.7% of the most highly exposed workers and 55.6% can lead to intensive care units (Zimbron, 2008).

The pathophysiology involves three processes of skin barrier disruptions, Epidural cellular changes, and release of Cytokin and T-lymphocytes. The adaptive responses to the alteration in the skin and cells include hardening of the skin to local expression of multiple cytokines. The irritation is caused by relatively thick layers of stratum granulosum.

Age. Dermatitis can occur at any age, but atopic dermatitis (eczema) usually begins in infancy

Allergies and asthma. People who have a personal or family history of eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis.

Occupation. Jobs that put you in contact with certain metals, solvents or cleaning supplies increase your risk of contact dermatitis. Being a health care worker is linked to hand eczema.

People with existing skin disorders like eczema, psoriasis, acne, or others

Health conditions. You may be at increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis if you have one of a number of conditions, such as congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease and HIV infection.


The adaptive responses regarding the body towards particular illnesses, injuries, and virus help in identifying the particular agents, bacteria or virus that cause the discomfort of the body. The responses often trigger when agents or infections escape the instinctive mechanism of body defense leading to antigen generation. The adaptive responses from the three scenarios above vividly depict the causes and associated agents usually triggered to counteract the illness occurrence.


Bathala, S., & Eccles, R. (2013). A review on the mechanism of a sore throat in tonsillitis. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 127(03), 227-232.

Hamilton, T., & de Gannes, G. C. (2011). Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives andfragrances in cosmetics. Dermatitis, 14, 16.

Iaboni, A., & Flint, A. J. (2013). The complex interplay of depression and falls in older adults: a clinical review. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(5), 484-492.

Morey, L. C., Shea, M. T., Markowitz, J. C., Stout, R. L., Hopwood, C. J., Gunderson, J. G., … & Skodol, A. E. (2014). State effects of major depression on the assessment of personalityand personality disorder. The American journal of psychiatry.

Oomen, K. P., Modi, V. K., & Stewart, M. G. (2012). Evidence-based practice: pediatric tonsillectomy. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 45(5), 1071-1081.

Proksch, E., & Brasch, J. (2012). The abnormal epidermal barrier in the pathogenesis of contact dermatitis. Clinics in Dermatology, 30(3), 335-344.

Zimbron, J., (2008). Mind maps—Dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [PDF]. Retrieved from

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I just need you to answer the questions

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Explain the pathophysiology of the disorders depicted in the scenarios, including their associated alterations. Be sure to describe the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations. Construct a mind map of your selected disorder. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.