Analysis of Two Reports: Flexner and Welch-Rose
Modupe O Sarratt
University of Maryland University College
The history of public health education is preventing diseases by vaccinations. For the history of medical education is diagnosing of a disease for treatments. Although is more than 100 years ago that Flexner reports of medical education to be the level of knowledge and multidimensional of clinical trial in the rendering of medical services for health. The Welch-Rose Report is comprehensive analysis for what constitute health for individual and the community for public health education. While Flexner report argues the depth of curriculum of medical education for multilevel practices is cost effective for rendering professional services. The Welch-Rose adhere that that it is cost ineffective for wasting of resources.
There is another factor to be an expertise for reporting beside knowledge is an art for being a reporter. However, this assignment is not about the news report, but about medical education and public health education that requires having a thorough knowledge and high level of dedication to knowledge. This paper will analyze Flexner reports for medical education and the Welch-Rose reports for public health education for divergent (difference), for intersecting (overlapping) and for parallel (similar).
Flexner Reports (Medical Education)
Flexner Reports for Medical Education (1910),It is interesting to know that Flexner in his report does not indicate that he earned a degree in medicine or he is a medical doctor, nor a physician to suggest he is not an expert on subject for medical education at the time that he wrote the report. However, Flexner had a bachelor degree in art to observer the events taken place in the creation of the Council on Medical Education (CME) for medical art to adopt two standards for medical training, observation and experience. To argue for medical education should be multilevel and multidimensional in order to treat disease conditions for practicing medicine require “means for analyzing, classifying, and interpreting medical condition” for the “principle of explanation” to reveal the treatment for yellow fever by purging and bleeding” lack the techniques to organized facts and check up for observation in the laboratory braches. To suggest the first level of medical education is for experimentation under the vague label for pharmaceutical as a course of study in the first and second years for premedical education or pre-med students (Flexner report, chapter IV) for the correlation to elementary medicine or the pathology branch of medical education.
The chapter VI of Flexner report discusses the elements for going into medicine in the third and fourth years. The third year, according to Chapter VI, is the “presumptive acquirement”; that the med students know the normal structure of the human body, the normal composition of the bodily fluids, the normal functioning of tissues and organs as well as the physiological action of ordinary drugs, and the main departures of the tissue and organ for disease or abnormal structure. To identify the third year of medical education is the elementary medicine for the pathology branch is the correlation to the clinical face according to the chapter VI for the hospital and medical, “is where pathology and clinical medicine begin together to procure student for practicing medicine for profit. Flexner based of his report on the observation medical education divisions for privatization. His observation is valuable today to compare medical services with that of health services for public health education.
Flexner divergent (difference) from the public health education
The divergent of medical education is not planning to improve health, instead is the transferring of government control for public health education to the private sector for profit. Public health education is the studying of community for welfare for non-profit. Caring is essential for public education and in medical education, but in medical field caring is profit and treatment is by affordability. While in public health, treatment is necessity for obligation.
The Flexner report is more than 100 years old and the report “is more relevant today for which areas of the medical education is fundamental for health” asked by Aspen et.al 2011. To suggest if medical education for curing disease is cost effective for public education for preventing diseases. Apern, Belissky, & Long (2011) illustrate today’s dilemma for medical education express by the Association of American Medical Colleges:
• The practice of medicine requires grounding in scientific principles and knowledge, as well as understanding how current medical knowledge is scientifically justified and how that knowledge evolves.
• Effective clinical problem solving and the ability to evaluate competing claims in the medical literature and by those in medical industries depend on the acquisition, understanding, and application of scientific knowledge and scientific reasoning based on evidence (AAMC–HHMI 2009).
Flexner intersecting (overlapping) for public health
The overlapping of medical education with public health education is curing of disease for preventing disease seems ironic. Preventing an illness for no disease is better and more profitable than finding treatments for curing disease is more costly. For both medical and health to overlap with CDC, for public health education, it is the inoculation of disease (germs/bacteria) by vaccination to a free health. Practicing preventative for hygiene and immunization are the treatment for health education. As oppose to practicing medicine for diagnosing and prescription are the treatment for medical education. In addition, Flexner report not includes medical ethic overlap for medical ethic is reporting the finding of contagious diseases to protect the public health from infection is the basis for health and medical professional.
The parallel to Flexner report for public health
Flexner ethical oversight for medical ethics education in the clinical practice creates many deficiencies for today’s health risk with transmission of diseases in practicing medicine to create health laws and policies for preventing the spreading of disease in the clinical practice. A journal article by Faunce & Gatenby (2015), suggest, that Flexner report is “inadequate to address the challenges involving practicing medicine for the evolving medical ethics and the right to health.” The ethical view for health seems to be parallel to health education to establish the need for professionally train entity or worker for “curative-oriented medical profession tied to Welch-Rose Report for public health education.
The Welch-Rose Report (Public health education)
The Welch-Rose Report by Dr. Welch, (1992), is comprehensive analysis for what constitute health for public health education for a five years review of Flexner report for medical education. Welch-Rose report help the public to understand the ideal health is scientific knowledge for understanding what causes disease to prevent or to seek for medical intervention. to have an alternative for prevention of diseases for launching the seminal for hygiene for the institution and the establishment of public health at Johns Hopkins University.
The Divergent of Welch-Rose Report for medical education
The Divergent for Welch-Rose Report for medical treatment to diagnose a disease for drug treatment to set forth the scope of health is a “designed to provide training and service for preventive medicine and public health. This is different but correlates with Flexner report. Different in a sense that Flexner report, for medical education, solely on the science of testing and finding the cause of a disease, to provide treatment by drug for the medical clinical practice. The divergent for public health education by Welch, (1992) is the science for preventing disease and maintaining health as follows: include the following:
1. Divergent in relation to medical education for instituting hygiene is having a high standard for the treatment of disease is for restoring health and not re-infecting patient with another disease for transmission of disease to the public for public health education is stopping the spreading of disease.
2. While Welch-Rose for health education is teaching about microbes that cause infection for the public awareness to protect self with practicing hygiene and by vaccination to be immune from infectious microbes is by immunization for public health education and is the science maintaining with preventative medicine.
The two reports overlap for health is a right to medicine to be free from a disease
The Welch-Rose combining of qualified medical practitioners of Flexner reports and bureaucracies of elective and non-elective politicians for the larger system for the delivering of medical services and health services. In 1915, the concern for public health education is fundamental for social stability, individual health, and the health of a society. Welch-Rose report highlights how to bring about the benefits of scientific knowledge and the general level of medical services for health and happiness. Welch include this in 1992 that “the system of public health education in America is unique by virtue of its independence from the larger delivery system for medical and health service is the flexibility in responding to changing environment that provokes the continual process of self examination and self questioning for professional evaluation” ( Welch,1992). To think that disease is associated with exposure in the clinical trial by testing patients for a disease such as, in the medical procedures of health patient for physical exam. According to an article written by Cook et.al (2006), Flexner 1910 report, addressed primarily the analytic reasoning, the kind of thinking integral to the natural sciences, should hold pride of place in the intellectual training of physicians” for practicing medicine.
Medical education is the germ theory of disease in the 19th century; the germ invasion is the cause of a sickness or damage for the use of medicine/drug. On October 19, 1914, a conference training on public health service held by the General Education Board according to Welch-Rose report, Flexner raised the question for a distinction between “maintenance of health” and cure of disease”. In the meeting, Flexner conveys that the profession of the sanitarian or public health worker should not be identical to the profession of the physician or medical practitioner to project the reform of medical education to be exclusively base on science for testing and finding of disease to use the drug for treatment. While Welch-Rose conveys that, the health education is by science and by influence for preventing diseases to be exclusive for the science of knowledge and maintenance for the specialty to prevent diseases for health through hygiene to remove or kill the germ, bacteria, or virus and by vaccination to be immune from microbe infection for health.
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Association of American Medical Colleges– AAMC–HHMI. (2009). Howard Hughes Medical Institute Scientific foundations for future physicians. Washington, DC: AAMC. Retrieve from http://www.aamc.org/scientificfoundations.
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Flexner, A., Pritchet, H., & Henry, S. (1910). Medical education in the United States and Canada bulletin number four (The Flexner Report). New York (NY): The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
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(2016). Researchers from Johns Hopkins University Detail New Studies and Findings in the Area of Public Health (Cultivating Hygiene as a Science: The Welch-Rose Report’s Influence at Johns Hopkins and Beyond). Retrieved from Beyond Health & Medicine Week.
Welch, W. H. (1992). The Welch-Rose report: a public health classic, a publication by the Delta Omega Alpha Chapter to mark the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, 1916—1992. Washington, DC: Delta Omega Honorary Public Health Society; 1992. Washington, DC: Delta Omega Honorary Public Health Society.
World Health Organization. (2009). WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: first global patient safety challenge. Clean care is safer care. World Health Organization.
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