Anemia Essay

Anemia Essay


Anemia refers to a condition which develops when ones blood has insufficient hemoglobin or (RBC) red blood cells which carries oxygen. Mostly women, children, and those with chronic diseases like HIV are most likely to suffer from anemia. Some kinds of this disease are hereditary, meaning that infants may be affected from their time of birth. On the other hand, women during the childbearing period are susceptible to the iron-deficiency anemia due high blood supply required during pregnancy and blood loss from menstruation. Adults also are susceptible to anemia due to poor medical conditions or diet which leads to its gradual anemia development.

There are many types of anemia classified into three groups according to their causes:

The known and known most common types of anemia are as follows:

  • Caused by excess blood loss
  • Caused by insufficient or defective red blood cell produced
  • Caused by red blood cells destruction.


  • Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Plastic anemia
  • Sickle cell anemia
    1. Thalassaemia
    2. Haemolytic anemia
    3. Fanconi anemia
    4. Pernicious anemia
  • Due to the conditions and symptoms witnessed on Ms A, I would like to discuss one class of anemia that is; the anemia due to vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    The main districting symptoms of this class of anemia are as follows:

    Pernicious Anemia

    • Loss of sense of touch
    • A tingling, “pins and needles” sensation on feet or hands
    • Dementia
      1. A wobbly, unsteady gait and walking difficulty
      2. Stiffness and clumsiness of the legs and arms

    Pernicious anemia is a specific type of anemia where the body is unable to produce sufficient and healthy RBC due to lack of enough vitamin B12.

    Victims of pernicious anemia cannot absorb sufficient vitamin B12 because they lack a protein developed in the stomach which is an intrinsic factor. However, other factors apart from this also can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Some people also develop pernicious anemia due to lack of enough vitamin B12 in the diet. The main signs and symptoms of this type of anemia includes the following:


    • Nerve damage; this leads to neurological problems like dementia, confusion, memory loss, and depression.
    • Problems in the digestive tract; this leads to nausea and vomiting, abdominal bloating and gas, heartburn, constipation or diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of appetite.
    • Enlarged liver causing increased shortness of breath
      1. Smooth, beefy red

    Because of the presented evidence in this case, it seems that Ms. A has anemia caused by insufficient or faulty red blood cell produced and specifically the Pernicious; this is due to lack of enough vitamin B12, Iron and Folate. The other types of anemia are ruled out because Ms A is otherwise young and healthy. Also her anemia symptoms appears and get worse in her menstruation period thus it is very logical to take that she loses a large amount of the critical minerals and vitamins in her blood loss period, which likely leads to vitamin B12 deficiency, iron and folate. Also the low level of hemoglobin (8 g/dl) provides a clear evident. Also the fact that Ms A suffers from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal for the last 12 years, it is apparently that she suffers from regular and tremendous loss of blood in her menstrual period. The menorrhagia suffering means that Ms A will necessarily suffer from fatigue and weakness due to excess blood loss, which can partially explain the low hematocrit level (32%) which gives the percentage of red blood cells.


    Pernicious anemia can be treated by replacing vitamin B12 missing in the body. Victims of this disease may require lifelong treatment. The treatment of this class of anemia relies or depends on the cause of the vitamin B-12 deficiency. In case the body stores for the vitamins are depleted of vitamin B-12, then the doctor will most likely prescribe vitamin B-12 injections. But if the vitamin B12 levels are border line low in the stores, then the doctor may try the oral tablets dose.