BIO 204 week 4 Root Anatomy

16 Oct No Comments

Plant Anatomy

Name: Antwan NailsCourse title: BIO/204DateInstructor’s Name:


Plants are classified under kingdom plantae in modern scientific classification.Plants make their own food.Plant classification based on roots and seeds.

Cross section of a leaf diagram

Figure 1. leaf cross section (Lubey, 2014)

Description of the leaf anatomy

Each part of a leaf performs a unique function.Epidermis categorized as either upper or lower epidermis.Vascular bundle made up of xylem and phloem.Mesophyll layer divided into palisade and spongy layer

Adaptation of the leaf to photosynthesis

Cuticle layer is thin and transparent.Palisade layer densely packed with chloroplastsGuard cells and stomata located in lower epidermis.Spongy mesophyll loosely packed and below palisade layer.The leaf is thin for easier gaseous exchange.

Cross section of a root diagram

Figure 2. root cross section(Advanced Placement Biology Laboratory Manual, 2004)

Description of the root anatomy

Roots classified as either being monocot or dicot.The overall root structure is divided into sections.Each structure performs a particular function.Roots perform various functions such as storage and respiration

Functions of the root structures

Each root structure performs has a specific function.Root hairs are only found in zone of maturation.

Root structure adaptations to their functions

Root structures have different adaptations to suit their functions.root tip is composed of living and dead cells.Cell division takes place in zone of cell division.Root hair are unicellular extensions of epidermal cells.

Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms

Table 1. plant nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms ( University of Phoenix, 2015; J, Silva; R, Uchida, 2000)

ElementRole in plant functionsDescription of deficiencysymptomsMacronutrientsNitrogen improves quality and quantity of dry matterUsed in enzymatic reactions and as protein building block. stunted growth, reduced protein content of seeds.Early maturity and pale-light yellow leaf appearancePotassium essential to protein synthesis and fruit formationIncreases photosynthesis and disease resistance. chlorosis, weak stems and lodging, Slow and stunted growth.Reduced size and quantity of seed and fruitPhosphorous involved in respiration, photosynthesis and cell division.Vital to seed formation slow, stunted and weak growthDelayed maturity and poor fruit and seed developmentCalcium formation of cell wall membraneDetoxifying agent by neutralizing organic acids in plants brown root tip, stunted growth.Blossom and buds fall prematurelyMagnesium major component of chlorophyllStabilizes ribosome particles. premature leaf dropYellow striped or orange –yellow leaves


Parts of the plant have adapted to their functions.Environmental factors affect how plants grow.Nutrients are essential for proper plant growth.


Carolina Biological Supply Company, C. B. (2004). Advanced Placement Biology Laboratory Manual. Carolina.Cutter, E. (1997). Plant Anatomy Part 1. Cells and Tissues. London: Edward Arnold.Esau, K. (1965). Plant Anatomy. John Wiley & Sons.J, A. S., & R, U. (2000). Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth: Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms. In U. R, Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture (pp. 31-55). Hawaii: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Minoa.James, S. A., & Bell, D. T. (2000). “Influence of light availability on leaf structure and growth of two Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus provenances”. Tree Physiology. doi:doi:10.1093/treephys/20.15.1007Lubey, S. (2014, October Friday). photosynthesis . Retrieved from Hobart:, & James., D. (2008). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones & Bartlett.mitosis. (2004). In Advanced Placement® Biology Laboratory Manual (p. 10). Carolina: Carolina Biological Supply Company.Raven, P. E. (1999). Biology of Plants (6th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman.Robbins, W. W., & Weier, T. E. (1965). Botany: Plant Science (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley International.Shelley, A. J., Smith, W. K., & Vogelmann, T. C. (1998). “Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae). American Journal of Botany, 198-207. doi:doi:10.2307/2656937Tyree, M. T., & Zimmermann., M. H. (2003). Xylem structure and the ascent of sap (2nd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.Whittaker., R. H. (1969). “New concepts of kingdoms or organisms”. Science 163 (3863).

Click following link to download this document

BIO 204 week 4 Root Anatomy.pptx