Cell Biology Worksheet

University of Phoenix Material

Cell Biology Worksheet

Part I: Foundations of Cell Biology

Respond to the prompts in the tables below. Each response should be at least 30 words. Cite any references that you use.

Foundations of Chemisty in Biology

Prompt Your response
Describe an example of a chemical reaction that occurs in the body. One of the many chemical reactions that happen within the body is Respiration. Respiration is the prosses of glucose reacting with oxygene to create energy. In the cell’s Mitochrongria glucose oxidation creates ATP, the cell then uses that ATP for its cellular procceses.

Plant Cells

Prompt Your response
Describe the primary structures in plant cells. Cell Wall- is the protective layer outside the Plasma membrane, composed largly of cellulose. Central Vacule- Large storage compartment for the cell.Plastids- Goups of closely bound oragnelles.Nucleus- Membrane bound structure which contains the hereditary material of the cell Mitochrondria- Provides a site for celleular respirationCell Membrane- Inside of the cell wall in plants, encloses cytoplasm, and organelles.
Explain the role of each structure in plant cells. Cell Wall- Provides structural support and protection. It also expands to hold the water in the cell without bursting.Central vacule- Stores water, and protienes. It also maintains turgur pressure agasnt the cell wall.Plastids- They are responsible for photosythesis Nucleus- The main control room of the cell. Directs all activites within the cell.Mitochrondira- Power plants. Convert glucose to ATP.Cell Membrane- Only allows certian substances to pass through, blocks others.
Explain how plant cells make energy for cellular processes. The process in which plant cells create their energy is called phtosynthesis. Plants also use cellular respiration. The plant’s chloroplasts absorb the suns energy. The chloroplasts then use the energy to turn stored water, and carbon dioxide into sugars. The mitochondria through cellular respiration convert those sugars into ATP.

Animal Cells

Prompt Your response
Describe the primary structures in animal cells. Cell Membrane- consist of lipids and proteins and are selectively permeable to allow materials to move both into and outside of the cell.Cytoplasm -Is a jelly-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cellLysosome -is a type of membrane-bound organelleMitochondria-are organelles that have a double membrane Nucleolus- is a dense spherical structure within the nucleus of a celltructure.Nucleus- is the Control Center of each cellRibosomes -are particles consisting of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein
Explain the role of each structure in animal cells. Cell Membrane- Controls substances that enter the cell, provides a protection barrier, and keeps the cell together by containing the organelles within it.Cytoplasm- Sometimes called the cell matrix, holds the organelles in place. Lysosome- Contains enzymes for breaking down protiensMitochondira- Produces the energy for the cell through cellular respirationNucleolus- They contain RNA for synthesis of ribosomes, they also produce protienesNucleus- Controls all the cells functionsRibosomes- Synthesis protienes that the cell needs to function.
Explain how animal cells make energy for cellular processes. Animal cells use a process call Cellular Respiration to create energy for its processes. In the organelle mitochongria, Glucose is broken down through Glycolysis which produces pyruvate. Pyruvate then enters the Krebs cycles which reduces NADPH & FADH. Here is where the majority of ATP is produced.

Bacterial Cells

Prompt Your response
Describe the primary structures in bacteria cells. Cell Wall- Encloses cell in a protiene sugar. Gives the cell its shape.Cytoplasm-Gel-like matrix composed of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases.Cytoplasmic Membrane-layer of phospholipids and proteinsFlagella-Hairlike structures that provide movement. Nucleoid-Region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is locatedPili- Hairlike arms that attach to a host to hitchhike. Ribosomes- Factories that create and synthesis protienes.
Explain the roles of each structure in bacteria cells. Cell Wall- Suurounds the cytoplasmic membrane to protect it. The cell wall also protects from osmotic pressure. Cytoplasm-where the functions for cell growth, metabolism, and replication are carried out.Cytoplasmic Membrane-Encloses the interior of the bacterium, the membrane moniters what is allowed to pass into the cell, and what gets blocked from the cell.Flagella- Provide a means of transportation for the cell. The cell fludders is flagella to move towards nutrients or to get away from toxins. Nucleoid- Where the DNA is stored so it can be replicated. IPili- Allow the cell to attach themselfs to nutrient rich host. Without these, bacteria cells would have a tough time infecting because they would not be able to latch on.Ribosomes- Create protienes nessasary for all cell functions.
Explain how bacteria cells make energy for cellular processes. Bacteria cells use the same proccess to create energy as plant and animal cells through cellular respiration. Bacteria cells are the only cells that can do this without oxygene. Anarobes are cells that use latic acid fermentation, or alcohol fermintation. During latic acid fermintation the cell uses NADH to take electrons from glucose to produce ATP and to convert glucose into pyruvate. Arobes are bacterica cells that use oxygene during cellular respiration, these cells create energy the same as plant and animal cells.
How are plant cells, animal cells, and bacteria cells different? Plant and animal cells are multi cellular organisms, while bacteria cells are single celled. Bacteria, plant, and animal cells all use cellular respiration to create their enrgy. Plant and animal cells need oxygene for cellular respiration while anarobe bacteria cells do not. Animal cells do not have cell walls to protect from osmotic pressure like plant, and bacteria cells. Plant and animal cells contain a nucleus which houses its dna, bacteria cells do not have a nucleus, their DNA is housed in the nucleoid.

Part II: Applying The Scientific Method to Everyday Life

Recently, Earl attended a picnic at his daughter’s school. The picnic was a potluck, and the food was served outdoors. Contributions included hamburgers, hot dogs, baked beans, potato chips, potato salad, coleslaw, apple pie, and vanilla ice cream. Within 24 hours of the picnic, several attendees developed symptoms of food poisoning. Of the 50 people who attended the picnic, only 30 people became ill. Every person at the picnic ate something, but not every person had an opportunity to sample each item. Earl noticed that the potato salad he started to eat was warm. He also noticed that his hamburger was somewhat pink in the middle and not fully cooked. Earl wonders if eating the hamburgers or the potato salad could be responsible for making some attendees ill. Earl has begun to apply the scientific method to this common problem. Answer each of the following prompts in at least 75 words.

Prompt Your response
What is Earl’s hypothesis? How did Earl create his hypothesis? Earls Hypothesis is that food from his daughter’s school picnic caused the people who attended to become ill. He created this hypothesis by obersvations, and research. Earl researched how many people came to the party and of those people how many became ill. He also asked them what foods they ate. Earl also used some of his own observations. He noticed that the hmaburgers were undercooked, and the patato salad was warm.
Describe the steps of the scientific method Earl utilized. Earl utilized the begining steps of the scientific method. The first one was observation, during this step Earl determined that out of the 50 people who attended the picnic 30 became ill from the food that was distrubuted for the potluck. He found out that not everyone ate all the food that was available. Earl did observe that the hamburgers were undercooked and the patato salad was no longer cold. Earl can come up with a hypothesis by determining if the undercooked hamburgers or the patato salad were the culprits to the outbreak of food poisining. Earl can now create an expierment to prove his hyopthesis. He can start asking the people who got sick which foods they ate and also asking those who didn’t get sick if they tried the potato salad or the hamburgers. Once Earl has concluded asking all 50 members of the party what they ate? How much did they eat? And if they ate anything before the party he can how analyze all his information and summary of the experiments results and findings.
How could Earl use the scientific method to create an experiment to determine which food sources made people sick? The scientific method would help Earl because it would allow him to test his hypothesis and prove it to be true. It would be impossible for Earl to gather food samples from what was actually served at the picnic. The food had been consumed or thrown away.However, since Earl noticed that his hamburger was undercooked, and the potato salad was not cold, he could create an experiment by using those two items. Earl could undercook some hamburgers, and also leave out patato salad till it gets warm. Earl then could consume the food himself to see if he gets sick. One day Earl could eat the under cooked hamburger, and wait 24 hrs to see if he becomes ill. He would repeat this step for the patato salad. If he gets sick from either one, he would had proven his hypothesis.


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