CJ 102 Unit 2 Worksheet

Student Name: Bianca Overton _______________________________________________________

Answer the following questions:

1. Identify the differences between the classical perspective, the biological/psychological perspective, and the process perspective of criminology. Describe the biological and psychological factors that contribute to crime and deviance within our society today.

The classical perspective, or the classical theory believes that criminal behavior can be managed by human will. The classical theory see’s criminal acts as unethical behavior and that penalizing can aid offenders and render examples of what can occur when you disobey the law. The biological perspective strives to describe behaviors through analysis and exploration of independent characteristics. This theory is based off the speculation that criminals have deformities. The social process perspective believes that criminality is a result of an individual’s socialization with miscellaneous company. It believes that bad behavior is influenced by others. The difference between the three is that the classical theory believes that criminal behavior can be manipulated by consequences, the biological perspective believes criminal behavior can be identified by traits, and the social theory believes criminal behavior is taught. Some of the biological and psychological factors that contribute to crime an deviance are social conflicts, genetic basis, hereditary, social interaction, and the social environment.

2. Name and describe the four key variables in Hirschi’s Social Bonding Theory.

The first element is attachment. Attachment is described as a component that attaches others to a specific person based upon comfortability such as friends, family, neighbors. A person can also become attached to other things like animals, their favorite tv show, a cell phone, and things of that sort. This is an important component in one’s life especially in adolescents. It is said that strong relationships lesson the chance of a youth becoming a criminal.

The second element is commitment. The commitment element is more goal & time oriented. It’s something that is work towards. Based on one’s commitment can determine the path of an adolescent. For example, if a youth is committed to school it’s a great chance that they’ll become what society calls successful. If a child is committed to sports it’s most likely they’ll turn out to be an athlete.

The third element is involvement. Involvement goes hand and hand with commitment. It’s ones active participation in their commitment. To explain if someone committed to school, involvement may include studying or participating in class. A persons involvement can also tell you how committed that person is to whatever they’re doing.

The fourth and final element is belief. Belief various by each individual. It’s a moral decision about what’s right and what’s wrong. This maybe one of the most important elements in society. Someone who does not hold strong moral beliefs will be more prone to committing crime and participating in antisocial behavior (Siegel, 2017).

3. Name the five techniques of neutralization and describe how each works.

The offender will acknowledge doing the etiquette of wrong doing, but claim they had no choice or they were forced to do it.

  • Denial of responsibility

The offender will insist that no one was harmed during the criminal act so no damage was done

  • Denial of injury

The offender blames the victim, stating it’s their fault or they deserved it.

  • Denial of the victim

The offenders preserve that those who rebuke their actions are doing so out of resentment and they try to shift the guilt on them.

  • Condemnation of the condemners

The offender will admit to the crime but claim it was for a greater purpose, like saving a friend or family member.

  • Appeal to higher loyalties

4. How does the difference between MZ and DZ twins relate to criminal behavior?

When it comes to criminal behavior, both genes contribute individually to criminality. The roles of genetic and environmental influences have a major affect on either twins criminal behavior. The difference between MZ and DZ in criminal behavior is the pinpointing of the inborn factors which shows minimal magnitude. MZ twins are encoded with the same DNA making it impossible to identify which twin committed the crime using DNA evidence. DZ twins share about 50% of the same genetic DNA making it easier to identify and separate one twin from another.

5. Define Beccaria’s position on crime and criminality.

Beccaria theorized that punishment is used to create a better society and not for revenge. He expresses the governments principal to have laws and punishments. The three beliefs of his theory on criminal justice were, free will, rational manner, and manipulability.