Student Name: Julie Angry
Read the following research experiment conducted by the Police Foundation in 1974:
Kelling, G. L., Pate, T., Dieckman, D., & Brown, C. E. (1974).The Kansas City preventive patrolexperiment: A summary report. Police Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.policefoundation.org/publication/the-kansas-city-preventive-patrol-experiment/
The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment: Police Foundation. Retrieved fromhttps://www.policefoundation.org/projects/the-kansas-city-preventive-patrol-experiment/
The experiment focused on the following research questions:
Would citizens notice changes in the level of police patrol?
Would different levels of visible police patrol affect recorded crime or the outcome of victim surveys?
Would citizen fear of crime and attendant behavior change as a result of differing patrol levels?
Would their degree of satisfaction with police change?
Pick ONE of the research questions above and complete the following five exercises.
Identify one independent variable from the selected research question.
In the question “Would citizen fear of crime and attendant behavior change as a result of differing patrol levels?” (Kelling, et al., 1974). Anindependent variable wouldbe fear of crime of citizens within the experimental boundary areas may be impacted by police department’s decision to establish different patrol levels in an experimental area that has certain boundaries. This is because establishing different types of patrolling may cause citizen’s fear of crime to either increase or decrease. Hence, an independent variable is the changed or controlled part of a scientific experiment testing effects on a dependent variable (Helmenstine, 2017).
Indicate how the independent variable identified in #1 could be measured (conceptualize, operationalize, and describe the level of measurement for this variable).
Changes made to preventative police patrol can be measured in a similar fashion as the Kansas City Police Department Experiment by developing three groups of different patrol types (reactive, proactive, or control) in the predetermined experimental areas. The level of measurement needed for this variable would appear to be nominal measurement, because knowing the diversity among different areas of the experimental area must be taken into account to determine citizen concepts of the fear of crime based on race, gender, and the like(Maxfield, 2016).
Identify one dependent variable from the selected research question.
A dependent variable would be the different patrol types that are assigned in subgroups throughout the predetermined experimental area parameters. Different patrol types are the dependent variables because these groups are broken down into reactive, proactive, and control type of police patrol to determine if they will cause citizen’s fear of crime to either decrease or increase from the patrol type assigned in their areas.
Indicate how the dependent variable identified in #3 could be measured (conceptualize, operationalize, and describe the level of measurement for this variable).
Measuring the dependent variable of the different police patrol types could be accomplished by operationalization via putting the different groups into action at their assigned beats in accordance with the type of patrol assigned to the officers. The level of measurement to use for this variable would be the ordinal measurement because different attributes determine if more or less of fear of crime was the result in the different patrol types (Maxfield, 2016, pg. 87).
Express the research question in a measurable hypothesis statement (ensure that the hypothesis statement includes the independent variable and the dependent variable you identified in items 1 and 2 above). Use the following structure to help formulate your answer:
Citizens fear of crime with assigned different types of police patrol are less likely to change citizen’s level of fear of crime than citizens fear of crime without changes made to their traditionally used methods of preventative police patrol.
Helmenstein, T. (2017, August 14). What is the Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables?
Kelling, G. L., Pate, T., Dieckman, D., & Brown, C. E. (1974). The Kansas City preventive patrolexperiment: A summary report. Police Foundation.
Maxfield, M. G. (2016). Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology, 4th Edition. [Kaplan].
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CJ490 Unit 3 Worksheet Research Methods in Criminal Justice.docx