HISTORICAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE THEORIES
In the 19th century leaders starting making change, and contributions to better the organizations of jails and prisons.
Some of the early leaders were Alexander Moaconochie, Elam Lynd’s, John Howard, Zebulon Reed Brockway, and Dorothea Lynde Dix. George Beto, Mary Belle Harris, and Katharine Bemont Davis were three individuals that were famous in the 20th century who were correctional reformers.
New ideas were brought forth by leaders who were reform-minded and wanted to look into improving jail and prison organizations in the 20th century.
Leading is when someone obtains respect for other individuals and oneself and has the strength to handle what one needs to handle.
Leaders can make decisions on different situations quickly at times. A leader provides direction, instruction, and guidance to individuals in order to obtain a goal or result. Leaders do not follow other individuals; leaders lead individuals.
Classical Organization theory introduced -1930’s
Neoclassical Organization Theory– 1945-1950’s
Human Resource Theory– 1957
Modern School Organization Theory– The second half of the 20th century, after World War II
Organizational Economics Theory– For the most part of the second half of the 20th century
Power and Politics Organization Theory– The 1970’s and still going today
Theories of Organizational Culture and Change– There some early text in the 1950’s-1960’s, but did not obtain infamy until the 1980’s
Theories of Organizations and Environments- Started to take over organizational theory in 1966-1967
Adam Smith (1776) the division of labor- First concept of bureaucracy in basic leadership
Karl Marx (1870’s) industrial revolution
Henry Ford (1908) “Fordism” the mass assembly line
Fredrick W. Taylor (1911) “Taylorism” scientific management
Henri Fayol (1916) theory of administration
Max Weber (1920/1922) bureaucratic theory-
Mary Parker Folletts (1924) observations on organizations and management
Elton Mayo (1932) the Hawthorne studies
August Vollmer (1936) called the father of modern police often, made public a more progressed idea called police of modern society
John Maynard Keynes (1936) the general theory of employment, money, and interest
Max Weber (1920) Bureaucratic Theory. Prezi, 2014.
Chester I. Barnard (1938) the functions of the executive
Abraham Maslow (1946) organization development
David McClelland (1950s) needs theory
Fredrick Herzberg (1968) motivational theory
James Q. Wilson (1968) varieties of police behavior
Robert Kaplan (1990’s) management accounting
Peter F. Drucker (1995) management guru, father of modern management
Stewart Clegg (2009) modern organizations
There are three components to the decision making process that include a choice, a thought, and a purpose. Choice is when a manager takes into consideration of alternatives and options. Thought is a manager’s mental process (as Massie calls it). A purpose is when a manager makes the determination of goals, missions, objectives, and states end.
Joseph L. Massie- 1987
Roy McLaren (1977) and Orlando Wilson counseled with nine categories in police evaluations that include:
1) Observance of work hours
2) grooming and dress
4) safety practices
5) compliance with the rules
6) knowledge of one’s work requirements
7) suspect contacts
8) public contacts
9) employee contacts
Henry Mintzberg 1979
Henry’s contribution to the organizational theory included his organizational configurations model. Based on that model, he concluded that any organization can have a maximum of six levels of staff. Originally there were only five and the sixth was added on later.
Strategic Apex- the top management
Middle Line- middle management and supervisors
Operating Core- operations and operational processes
Techno- structure- specialists in the technology field
Support Staff- personal who deal with internal matters
Ideology- personal dealing with cultural effects
Training is an essential part to any organization, and those that are leading the organization, department, or team have a moral and fiscal responsibility to insure that their staffing is well trained in their job or duties.
The age old saying goes…”your only as good as your weakest link.” It is the leaders duty to ensure that the weakest link is anything but weak.
In today’s society training can surround a number of things from book, class, hands on, and technological training.
Training builds familiarity and unity amongst the mass, and ultimately effects the bottom line of any organization.
Another essential role in leadership is the ability to allocate, which is essentially the ability to know how to use your resources and assign them tasks. In the criminal justice organizations in particular this is vitally important, because if you are in-effective in this then you will fall short in being an optimal department.
Officers also become increasingly confined to their vehicles and isolated from the community. (Scheider, et. al, 2009) this is a prime example to where we have to examine the best route to allocate our resources, and thus where community policing became a impacting resources amongst other things.
In supervising we have to be able to recognize the resources and find the best routes in which to allocate them.
Reporting is one of the key forms of accountability. This is not the only reasoning for reports anymore, though. Reports have become the way that the public receives information from police officers and from the criminal justice system.
1960’s- St. Louis installs the first computer assisted dispatching system which opened up law enforcement to the advancements of technology
1970’s- The United States begins to install computers in every police department across the nation and hand written reports become a thing of the past. Typed reports are the new future and they are easier to make, store, and access.
Prezi. 2014. Learn and Support. http://prezi.com/wfgelgohl_le/historical-criminal-justice-theories-team-b/
Scheider, M.C., Chapman R., Scharpiro, A. (2009). Towards the Uniform of Policing Innovations Under Community Policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 32 Iss: 4, pp. 694 – 718
Shafritz, J. M., Ott, S. J., & Jang, Y. S. (2011). Classics of Organizational Theory (7th Ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth http://www.doreburry.com/papers/Analysis_of_Org_Theories_Read_Disclaimer.pdf
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CJA 444 Historical Criminal Justice Theories Timeline Poster.pptx