Criminological Theory and Statistics
Criminological Theory and Statistics
In the United States today, the theory of criminology is founded on the research and statistics in the criminal justice system. Having the majority of the criminal justice system based on research and statistics, the development of research and statistics is widely based on criminological theories in many different theoretical resolution of criminology. In many different way’s criminological statistics can be used to confirmed criminological hypothesis or deny a criminological hypothesis originating from criminal activities. When confirming or denying criminological hypothesis based on criminal activities, the chances are that the law enforcement department will invoke updated policies and procedures to their department. Most of the time the updated policies will have a negative or positive impact on reduce crime rates, community safety, analyses of crime trends, and numbers of other topics that pertain to the criminal justice system.
The social perspective of the study in criminology and how it relates to the cause of crime, the social ramifications of crime, and the individuals involved in the acts of the crimes; criminal researchers that study criminology in endeavors to improve their comprehension into the motives of criminal acts (What is Criminology, 2016). The facts of criminology are essential to the criminal justice system that we have in today’s society, this is due to the dedicated personnel in the study of criminal justice system. Criminological theories and the statistics that is backed by research is to explain who, what, when, and why, criminal conduct. In the same contexts, the way community reacts to criminal conduct in their own neighborhood. Also, the political perspective that has effects towards social mechanism and anti-crime policies through the United States communities.
Most law enforcement department across the United States of America base their local department policies backed by criminological statistics. Criminological statistics are used in many different ways and not just for policies for local law enforcement departments. There are several, to provide evidence in support or refute the causality of criminal conduct, and the motives behind the criminal conduct. The social variables such as poverty and crime, gender and crime, and different levels of education and crime. These variables are what researchers use in criminological statistics in relationalities to criminological analyzes. In our communities today, there is a wide verity of education levels that makes communicating law enforcement anti-crime programs to the local communities more challenging. That is why there is the United States Census Bureau, the law enforcement can use such data collected for such area for a certain audience so the information substantial and organized in the matter for that set audience. There are limitations in statistics specifically in criminology, when dealing with data collection and specific analysis.
When researchers process, data collected in the criminal justice field from a verity of sampling and surveys from the sources they must make sure that the data collected is not incomplete data. For instance, having not enough data or having inaccurate data from the sample or surveys will imitate the entire population. There are much difficulties when trying to compare two relationships of public sectors like law enforcement and public health. In many large United States city’s there is a small amount of information to compare indicators when determining the about the variation of drug use, it is also unclear, how closely the relationship between arrest statistics that are used to measure illicit drug offenders and public health measurements such as emergency departments reports (Rosenfeld and Decker, 1999).
The criminological theories such as biological, classical, and rational choice theories; each theory is founded under the behavioral sciences umbrella. In the field of criminology, rational choice theory is a criminal act that is done by choice. In a study, concerning juvenile offenders and recidivism rates, researchers found that statistics refutes the rational choice theory in regards to juvenile delinquencies (Fagan and Piquero, 2007).
In the ever evolving, criminal justice system, statistic will always have a vital role no matter how advance criminological theories become. When statistics become readily available in support of local law enforcement programs, only then law enforcement officials can to make changes to their anti-crime programs, policies and procedures; that are back by statistics that either verify or reject the changes made. The first people to notice the changes in their communities are the local law enforcement officers in the communities’ day in day out. The need for research and statistics will always have an effect to on the criminal justice system, without it law enforcement professionals would have no recollection on whether the tax payers money is effecting criminal behavior in their communities.
Fagan, J. and Piquero, A.R. (2007) Rational choice and developmental influences on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. J Empir Leg Stud. 4(4). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818334/.
Rosenfeld, R. and Decker, S.H. (1999). Are arrest statistics a valid measure of illicit drug use? The relationship between criminal justice and public health indicators of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use. Justice Quarterly: JQ 16.3. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/228200891?pq-origsite=summon&accountid=458.
What is Criminology. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.detectiveedu.org/what-is-criminology/