EDD 8304 Unit 3 Assignment 1 Annotated Bibliography Research Paper

Unit 3 Assignment 1

Annotated Bibliography: Research Paper

EDD8304

The How-To of Becoming an Action Researcher

Instructor: Dr. Sharon Micheal-Chadwell

Introduction

The purpose of the paper is to discuss and review annotated bibliographies from various academic sources. The focus of this research is centered around the increase in culture diversity on college campuses and its involvement within their admissions process. Cultural diversity has become a topic of discussion within the education world, due to its dynamic change and influence throughout the country. With Cuyahoga facing a diversity crisis, the essential annotated citations within this paper cover equities in reference to race, socio-economic status, minorities and that will help create services to assist the institution’s admissions process.

Literature Review

Bollinger, L. (2007, October). Why diversity matters. Education Digest, 73(2), 26-29.

In this article Lee Bollinger, president of a private university, expresses his concern about the future of students and education in reference to diversity. He is also concerned about how America’s societal knowledge progression in diversity has digressed. Bollinger discusses the importance of diversity in the university setting and how it has a positive effect on the social evolution of minorities. Bollinger believes that bans on affirmative action will halt the advancement of social evolvement. Within his argument, he cites cases that confirm his theory. His argument is centered around the idea that employers are seeking out diverse individuals that can communicate with co-workers from all walks of life. He also states that employers tend to employ students based on communication skills with the addition of knowledge in the area of employment. This is why Bollinger feels that students should not be admitted into a college or a university merely on test scores and how they performed in high school. This article is relevant and important because it supports the theory about the importance of diversity not only in colleges and universities but also in America.

Fischer, K. (May 12, 2006). Elite Colleges Lag in Serving the Needy: The institutions with the most money do a poor job of reaching the students with the least. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

This report highlights the data collected on students from low socio-economics and the location of their higher education enrollment. It scrutinizes wealthy institutions and their failure to meet the needs of poor students. The statistics show college rates and competition have increased while eliminating the chances for students from low income acceptance. The study also shows only 14 percent of Pell Grant recipients were enrolled in wealthy schools. Even though low income students represent only 3 percent of the top 146 colleges, studies show they benefit the most financially, by attending wealthy private schools. (Fischer, 2006) Recent research conducted by Alan B. Krugger (Princeton) and Stacy Berg Dale (Mellon Foundation) discovered that low-income students are the one group that benefited the most financially, by attending a more selective school. Because of this, some of the more wealthy schools are improving their financial aid and admissions programs. This report is relevant because the wealthy institutions have the ability to change class and cultural divisions among higher education.

Garrison, N.G., Gardner, D.S. (2012). Assets first generation college students bring to the highereducation setting. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539775.pdf

When we think of diversity, we tend to forget there are several subgroups under the multicultural umbrella. First generation college students, although not often referenced, make up a considerable amount of the diverse population in the classroom. This article is pivotal in the qualitative research study because it examines how these students would be assets to colleges and universities. It talks about 13 contributing assets they possess. They included, but not limited to, resourcefulness, strategic thinking, self-reliance, practical realism, flexibility, persistence, positivity, hopefulness, self-confidence, insightfulness, compassion, gratitude and balance. These are qualities you would like for all students to exhibit. The research revealed they acquired the assets because of their marginalized socio-cultural positioning. (Garrison & Gardner, 2012) The researchers also provided suggestions on how higher educational institutions could support first generation students. It proposed that institutions could provide or offer faculty training and augmenting student support services through faculty development and departmental dialogue that exposes instructors to an alternative asset oriented view.

Johnson, K.; Inoue, Y. (2006) From Theory to Practice: An analysis of multicultural education in an american pacific island university. The Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC)

The focus of this research examined multicultural education at a minority university in the Pacific. The researchers conducted their investigation in two separate phases which gave them the clarity that was needed to identify the most effective methods in educating a diverse or multicultural population. (Johnson & Inoue, 2006) Phase one concentrated on the attitudes and perceptions of faculty toward diversity and multiculturalism. Phase two was geared towards the actual practice of multiculturalism in the classroom and curriculum. They found that there was a direct link between perception and actual practice. Even though most instructors were comfortable and willing to integrate multiculturalism plans and policies into their classrooms, many lacked the skills or experience to do so. (Johnson & Inoue, 2006) Faculty members must not only be proponents but also be practitioners. It is one thing to believe in something or agree with the necessity for its implementation, and it is another to be an active supporter and “doer.” Their personal and ethnocentric beliefs also affected their abilities to be successful. As Gaff (1992) poignantly puts it, “in order for professors to become a part of the solution and not the problem, they need to examine their own views and emotional roots” (p. 31). This research is relevant because it brings diversity awareness and realities among faculty and staff members. It also creates an objective platform so that educators will evaluate their own actions in addressing the needs of our culturally diverse student body.

Lucas, T; Villegas, A. (2002) Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education 53 (2), 1

The main focus of this article is to bring attention to Higher Education institutions and how they prepare future educators to teach a diverse student population. The article highlights the enormous shifts in multicultural population beginning in 2000. America is changing and so should the world of education has to change. It is because of this paradigm shift, the importance of preparedness for teachers exiting their perspective programs with the necessary tools to meet the needs of diverse ethnic groups inside the classroom. The author feels that the existing curriculums do not put enough emphasis on multiculturalism. The author also suggests that Higher Education institutions should offer more courses and workshops that focus on educating diverse populations. This article is relevant due to the fact it acknowledges the rise in diversity within the classroom and the need to address the issues. It also provides strategies/approaches to help solve the problem.

References

Bollinger, L. (2007, October). Why diversity matters. Education Digest, 73(2), 26-29.

Fischer, K. (May 12, 2006). Elite Colleges Lag in Serving the Needy: The institutions with the most money do a poor job of reaching the students with the least. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Accessed August 21, 2006.

Garrison, N.G., Gardner, D.S. (2012). Assets first generation college students bring to the higher

education setting. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539775.pdf

Johnson, K.; Inoue, Y. (2006) From Theory to Practice: An analysis of multicultural education in an american pacific island university. The Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC)Lucas, T; Villegas, A. (2002) Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education 53 (2), 1