Philosophies of Multicultural Education
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Philosophy of multicultural education
The concept of multicultural education is brought about by the diversity of the learners in a particular state or country. Therefore many educators have realized the importance of expanding knowledge to suit the multicultural education systems. However, the system failure or success will depend on the knowledge, skill and the preparation of the educators. Notably for the educators must be ready to embrace and understand the importance of the culture and its impact on the learners as a whole. The philosophical approach tends to explain the opportunities and failures of the multicultural curriculum system. Further it’s equally important that the educators have the full understanding of the differences in relations to gender, race and to an extent the culture of the learners (Banks, 1999).
With this it’s therefore expected that the educator should promote academic balance in order for the students to be successful in achieving their educational goals. The main goal and objective of the multicultural system Is to enable the students an equal opportunity to learn which involves the change of the school learning curriculum. In order for learners to develop inclusive study atmosphere there must be the presence of other multicultural resources that may include; teaching resources by the educator, strategies for teaching students who are culturally diverse and creation of awareness activities. ( Banks J.A,1999).
Cultural ecology theory
The theory involves the understanding of human social life in direct relationship with the environment. The explanation of this theory entails to both cultural practices and biological aspects of human being. The theory settles its argument on the ground of the human environment and how the changes of environment by human being will affect its biological and cultural practices (Banks J.A 1999).
Application for cultural ecology in classroom
In learning the theory further argues that cultural ecology system tends to explain different ways change is environmentally induced. Therefore the changes that human being undergoes is influenced by the environment either through practices, technologies and the knowledge. The culture of the learners as per the theory is directly affected by the biological and physical environment (Barker, 2004).
Real life experience
The learning and understanding of the student depends much on the environment either physically or biologically. The educator should be able to understand the different aspect of the learners in a multicultural education curriculum system. These aspects are partly inherited or influenced by environment. Theorist argues that immigrant student tends to perform much better than others. In a learning environment the educator should be equipped and well prepared for multicultural curriculum system (Benedict, 1934).
Image of theory application
Cultural deficit theory
The theory focuses much on the learners under performs in schools, its attributes this affects to the political and socio-economic of the students. Its further explains that this student tends to be negatively victimized by their teachers or even the management of their school due to practices and the communities they come from. The adaption of multicultural system would go hand in hand in eradication of negative outlooks of the learners among themselves or even the school management. The academic success can be traced back to the various community practices. The theory give conclusive finding that other groups from different environmental background are more intelligent compared to other geographical areas (Banks, 1999).
Application for cultural deficit in classroom
In a multicultural curriculum the educator should be a position to eradicate this victimization among the learners to improve on the success of the students. The cultural deprivation theories supported that emotional and social deficiencies affected the results of the learners (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Real life experience
Students from the communities that are socially deprived economically, socially and even politically tends to pose poor performance in education. These are driven by concentrating purely on their background and less time in their academic work. The educator therefore, should be well equipped in assisting such students for better academic results. The problem may be financial constraints or other social problem related to learning resources. Teachers should use their knowledge to guide the learners to eliminate poor performance among the students (Banks, 1999).
Transformative learning theory
Learning is process in the minds of human beings, therefore learning being a cognitive process it affect the emotions and the behaviors of the mind. The learner tends to have different interpretation from the other learners. Transformative learning theory involves learners discussing similar topic and giving competitive answers in support of their findings and facts. Transformative learning tends to make the learners more involved, self reflective and integrates the learning experience and behavior. In this case the learner tends to develop mental discipline and more creative in learning process posing good results as compared to other learners (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Application for Transformative theory in classroom
The educator in multicultural learning curriculum should develop good sense of transformative learning to encourage and create good learning environment. Teachers should encourage the students to develop discussion method as a system of learning in order to exchange various ideas depending on the understanding of the topics. This will eventually result into mind advancement and exposure to the students (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Real life application
Strengthening of the curriculum repetitive to the learners usually develops progressive knowledge with firm relationship between the subjects and the growth of mind of the learners. The students develop the mind and critical thinking to process information and effectively respond to other learning changes (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
This is an approach that incorporates various activities such as celebration of holidays, cultural events, legendary heroes as well as selecting books that reflect multicultural education. A good example is where students read about the legendary Martin Luther especially in the month of January. This is an approach that emphasizes in analysis of cultural depicting materials or books (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
The main difference of this approach from the rest is that its basic structure is never changed irrespective of adding concepts, perspectives and themes in the study. The curriculum is static but it ensures that diverse cultures of different people are incorporated. For example, sometimes we celebrate thanksgiving and when students read about various thanksgivings they get the culture rich diversity in each (Banks, 1999).
This is an ideal approach that allows room for flexibility in that the curriculum soon changes and students are given a chance to conceptualize new themes, issues, and even approaches do diverse ethnicities whereby their view are given into account. This is where critical thinking is measured and encouraged in every student (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Social action approach
Activities for social change are the prime movers in this approach and thus the social issues are given a great deal of cultivation in a bid to enable the student to understand and respond by doing something vital concerning social issues. A good example is in the case of illegal immigration in the American borders and the way the immigrants were handled. This triggered a social interest and many people wrote to the leaders concerning the issue (Banks, 1999).
Design Unit to Grade Multicultural Approaches
Resources for multicultural education
There have been various multicultural resources that have been established to help the learners and educator in the process of multicultural education and diversity based on k-12 classroom.
Firstly there has been wide creation of websites where individuals and groups interested in multicultural education are able access the information. In addition interested individual can access the current and past information from the sites. The examples of these website include; National education for multicultural education and national multicultural institute (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Secondly many authors have written various books which cover various issues on multicultural education and processes which include; Asian-America booklist and Native American booklist. Thirdly in print materials as well has been established and published to help in the multicultural systems (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Adaptive learning Technologies
Adaptive learning involves allocation of mediated and human resources to suite various unique specifications that suite the learner best by use of devices that are iterative such as the computers (Barker, 2004).
Implementation in the Classroom
This one is usually implemented by use of information technology hence making it a learning system that is adaptive and in this case tutoring principles are employed. The basic factor is that the tutoring method used should rely on the skills of the student and his or her basic abilities and hence one appropriate approach is the use of IPL which is an inductive logic programming that has an ability to create hypothesis from the given examples in class. The issue of flexibility is of paramount importance in that there should be a room to allow adoption of new contents without neglecting the level of skills of the tutor while delivering (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
This provides forum in technology is applied to provide automated feedback to students who are preselected in database bank. The forum lacks the guidance of the tutors to their students similar to classroom implementations. The assessment criterion for the students which is determined from the lowest to highest is purely based on cognitive abilities. The technological method of learning is web designed where we learn is advanced for the provisional assessment of questions posed to students (Barker, 2004).
International society for technology in education
With an aim to enhance and promote favorable learning environment ISTE was designed to promote technology integration to the learners in their problem solving processes. The technology has further raised the education standards in schools based on tutors as well as the learners in k-12 classroom. It involves integration of curriculum in a multidisciplinary setting where learners are able to obtain timely information in appropriate and professional manner pertaining to the areas of study. Learners are able to carry out broad range of topics as well access the advanced learning cheaply. The technology has contributed greatly in multicultural education system as it has lead to global diversification of classroom activities (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
National educational technology standards
For the purpose of maintaining digital system in the learning productivity in k-12 curriculum set up the ISTE established NETS to check on the appropriateness of the application of technology in learning. These technology leads to quick and easy learning of the students while the teachers are able teach outside their classroom. Tutors can be able therefore able to guide students through technologically integration. The standards state the complete understanding of the importance of technology in education set up (Barker, 2004).
Recommendation to enhance multicultural education
The tutors should promote the act of understanding the student background in their respective classes. This will be done through building and creating humble environment between the tutors and student. Understanding ones cultural system and practices will create peaceful coexistence among each other. These will focus on acquiring knowledge of respect, cooperation and diversity within the learning environment (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
The Involvement of administration through establishment of the activities and events in line with the multicultural educational themes as well involving the learners from various cultures in decision making processes in order to create continuous process in the curriculum to encourage multicultural lessons, ideas and materials. Creating room for controversial discussion about the race, culture and other practices should be encouraged between the tutors and students (Benedict & Ruth, 1934).
Multicultural education philosophy deals with the challenges of discrimination of the learners and educators on the basis of their gender, races, religion or abilities which may involve their sexual orientation in life. The approach seeks to eradicate cultural differences by the use of different curriculum to ensure students can solve the problems from different cultural perspectives. Through acquiring of these knowledge can be therefore get engaged in the activities in their communities to eradicate discrimination of any kind (Barker, 2004).
Further it involves incorporating lessons reflecting cultural diversity among the students. Multicultural education works for the principle of equitable education among all students regardless of their nationality, race, gender or sexual orientation. Multicultural educators strive to make reforms in learning institutions to learner’s equal opportunity to acquire education and sustainable job market competition and positive contributions towards their communities (Barker, 2004). Diagram demonstrating personal philosophies of multicultural education.
Advantages of personal philosophies to k-12 curriculum
Provides a forum where it points out the potential issues affecting education systems. Through the application of k-12 curriculum system the learning institution gathers information on how to make education system better.
Learners are able to share knowledge from one region to another, these makes it easier for learning for students in a multicultural set up. With all factors considered learners are able to enhance the quality of education.
Applying k-12 education system enables the learner from different cultural background to socialize. This goes a long way in promoting multicultural education system.
Criteria for effective’s multicultural curriculum
In order for effective multicultural the system ought to promote and foster good intergroup relationship between the students and educators and appreciation of different ethnic, cultural and diversified groups. The policies and the management of the learning institution should be able to identify various aspects of racism as well as the acceptance of their differences (Barker, 2004).
The tutors should help the learners to develop and adopt positive attitude in their cultural differences. All tutors should be a clear presentation of the racial and cultural diversity in the society. These may be achieved through the programs that help the educators in developing positive expectations from the students (Barker, 2004).
Banks, J.A. (1999). An Introduction to Multicultural Education
Barker, C. (2004). The Sage dictionary of cultural studies. Sage
Benedict, Ruth (1934). “Patterns of Culture”. Houghton Mifflin Company.
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