Critique and Instructional Design Model
EDU 674: Foundations and Trends in Curriculum and Instruction
Critique and Instructional Design Model
Instructional Design is defined as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion”. Instructional design is very important to the success of the classroom, and the students. This process is the foundation for efficient, and effective lesson plans. Since no two students are the same, instructional designs must cater to the various types of learner. There are many types of instructional designs that an educator can choose from. In this paper we will look at and analyze an instructional design model that I feel is best for the classroom that I will walk into.
Instructional Design Model
Gagne presents to us in his Instructional design model that there are nine steps that provide framework in the learning process. “His theory of instruction consists of a taxonomy of learning outcomes, conditions of learning and nine events of instruction”. These nine steps in order are to first, grab the students’ attention, or hook them. I call this the “J factor”. This is where the teacher will tell a story, show a video, or draw the students into what you are about to teach them. Once you have grabbed their attention, next you will state the objective or the purpose of what you are teaching. What do you want the students to learn, what is the goal of the lesson? Students will be able to gather their thoughts on what is going to be taught. In order for students to gather their thoughts on what they are about to learn you must help them access prior knowledge. One way to build upon students’ prior knowledge is through scaffolding. “Instructional scaffolding is a process through which a teacher adds supports for students in order to enhance learning and aid in the mastery of tasks. The teacher does this by systematically building on students’ experiences and knowledge as they are learning new skills”. Present the material that you are about to teach. You can be very creative in the way that you present the material. Again you want to scaffold the material. Next the teacher provides guidance to the students on understanding the new concept. This is where the teacher may want to model the skill for the students. After the students grasp the concept, students will practice the new skill on their own. This is called guided practice, because the teacher is providing real time feedback while the students are practicing the new skill. After students have grasped the concepts, you will assess them to check for understanding.
The reason I choose this model is because I like the structure of the model. This structure and steps of this design model provide the most effective and efficient way for the layout of a lesson. Scaffolding builds upon what learners already know, and then allows time for the teacher to properly assess mastery of the ne learned skill set.
Attributes of the Model
This model that gain [resents has many attributes for educators. Each step of the process provides where you should be at in the lesson. It allows for pacing in the lesson to ensure no component is missed. The design starts out with hooking the student into your lesson and getting them engaged. Engagement in any lesson is very important, for mastery and for reachability. If students are not engaged they will not be able to fully understand the new skill concept that the teacher is teaching. The only limitations for this model is that it is basic, and not differentiated for students with disabilities. No two students are the same, and so this model is very clear cut and structured in its design.
Lesson Planning and Future Career Endeavors
My goal is to become a Principal or Head of School. I can use Gagne’s model in order to help train my struggling teachers when planning lessons or units for their classes. This is a structured framework for lesson design, they can model after. Gagne will help them organize their thoughts and lesson from start to finish. Teachers can start by “hooking” their students with a lesson. This will help remind my teachers to keep students engaged. Teachers will also need to remember when planning their lessons to build upon the prior knowledge of the students. What can they pull from previous lessons to connect to the current?
As a Principal I will go through the model with my teachers, to help them prepare their lessons. Teachers also much make each lesson their own, and they will have to customize to fit their students. This framework is the best design to help students reach mastery, which is my number one goal.
Three Essential Elements
Gagne’s Instructional design model has nine steps. Out of those nine steps there are three that I feel are essential elements that add to the effectiveness of the design. As stated before the first one is the gaining the attention of the student. Gaining the attention sets the tone for the entire lesson. If the teacher does not engage the student from the beginning of the lesson they have lost them, thus this is the reason this step is essential to the effectiveness of the design.
The second essential element is building upon prior knowledge. This allows students to make connections from previous learned material to the new material. This step is very important for helping students master the new skill, and seeing what students have retained from a previous learned skill.
While all 9 steps are important, the last step that is most important is assessing the student on their new learned skill set. In this step of the design teachers are able to gather hard data to use to analyze student mastery. We are looking for 80% student’s mastery in a new skill or concept, this is why this step is essential to the design. Teachers can take the data and see where students are struggling and use it to reteach.
In conclusion, instructional design is very important to the success of the classroom, and the students. This process is the foundation for efficient, and effective lesson plans and teaching. Gagne presents to us in his Instructional design model that there are nine steps that provide framework in the learning process. This structure and steps of this design model provide the most effective and efficient way for the layout of a lesson. Out of those nine steps there are three that I feel are essential elements that add to the effectiveness of the design. Those are gaining the attention of the students, accessing prior knowledge and assessing the students. This framework design is the best design to help students reach mastery, which is my number one goal.