Visual Interpretation

Week 4 Assignment: Visual Interpretation

Ashford University: EDU 694

Part 2: Reflection

When researching a topic, it is crucial to establish the quality of the data. Educators search for answers to support their students on daily and future tasks. One cannot simply put faith in an article simply because it was published. According to Mertler (2017), “Action research can be used effectively as a means of identifying problems in school settings” (chap. 1.3). To properly assess a student’s needs, the research must have qualifying characteristics. The data that is qualified to support the research can be found in qualitative or quantitative material.

The characteristics of qualitative data include accuracy, credibility, and dependability. According to Mertler (2017), “Qualitative data are narrative, appearing primarily as words” These “words” may appear in the form of interview transcripts, observational notes, journal entries, or transcriptions of audio or videotapes or as existing documents, records, or reports” (chap. 5). Qualitative research methodology interprets the meaning of data, based on what is observed (Daniel, 2019). The characteristics below are crucial to a researcher’s perspective to ensure the data is qualitative.

Accuracy is essential that the practitioner-researcher ensures the quality of their data. If they are not accurate, their data will be faulty. Any research or participant in the study will have false information.  

According to Mills (2017, as cited in Mertler, 2017), “Validity of research data deals with the extent to which the data that have been collected accurately measure what they purport to measure (i.e., that which we intended to measure). Daniel (2019) states, Trustworthiness portrays quality in qualitative research (para. 6). The views from personal research, such as in a survey, or questionnaire, must have accurate believability. To establish trustworthiness in qualitative data, one needs to examine conformability, credibility, transferability, and dependability. Transferability is descriptive and contextual and statements for the reader to easily identify, with this setting clear in-depth for the particular setting.

Dependability the responsibility for describing the changes that occur in the setting and how these changes affected the way the researcher approached the study; helping to ensure the data continues to be stable over time.

Confirmability is a process of establishing the neutrality and objectivity of the data.

2017, chap. 5.1).

Types of Qualitative Research:

Observations: According to Schmuck(1997, as cited in Mertler, 2017), observations are a means of collecting qualitative data, that involves carefully watching and systematically recording what you see and hear going on in a particular setting. By using their five senses, a researcher’s observations describe existing situations. An example of observation would be, a classroom observation taking field notes.

Interviews: Rather than observe people, one can ask them questions. Structured interviews are done using guide and predetermined questions. While semi-structured interviews have base questions with possible follow-up questions, open-ended interviews are very broad.

Journals: According to Mills (2011, as cited in Mertler, 2017), Data journals may be capped by both teachers and students and provide valuable information on the workings of a classroom (chap. 5.1). Having students write personal journals, provide a teacher with personal insights, this allows the teacher to see the student’s perspective.

Existing documents and records: Existing documents and records are gathering of action research that already exists. One can search the school or public library for material on a topic. In the 21st century, research is now available online. The existing sources require research in that they would need to be accurate, creditable, and dependable resources.

Quantitative research is any data that can be counted. Qualitative data deals with wording and quantitative data deals in numerical terms. Mertler (2017), states, “This includes not only items that can be counted but also ratings of one’s feelings, attitudes, interest, or perceptions on some sort of numerical scale. Quantitative data collection techniques include surveys, questionnaires, checklist, and rating scales as well as test another more formal types of measurement instrument” (chap. 5.2). Below are the characteristics of quantitative data collection and techniques.

Validity is crucial to know whether the data researched is what it allegedly believed to be, based on the topic chosen. The data may be accurate. However, the crucial factor of the data is it is precise and proper for your use. According to Mertler (2017), there are five sources of evidence of validity.

(chap. 5.2). 

  • Evidence of validity based on a test (or instrument)
  • Evidence of validity based on response processes
  • Evidence of validity based on internal structure
  • Evidence of validity based on relations to other variables
  • Evidence of validity based on consequences of testing

Mertler (2017), suggest they are more appropriate for larger scale testing program. The results are meant to be generalizable rather than individualized in a research study (chap. 5.2).

Reliability in quantitative data is determined by the consistency of the collected data. If you were to do a blood test for a vaccine, receiving identical results, with repeated testing each time, the results would be reliable, and therefore useful for your purpose. If, however, you did not get the same answers for each test, you would conclude that the test is unreliable. According to Mertler (2017), “Reliability of quantitative data is usually established by correlating the results with themselves or with other quantitative measures three different methods are used- test-retest, equivalent forms, and internal consistency” (chap. 5.2).

Surveys, Questionnaires, and Rating Scales

Surveys- A data collection technique administering questions. The technique can be served to individuals groups of people.

Interviews- surveys that are administered verbally

Questionnaires- according to Mertler (2017), “Surveys that are administered in written form, where the researcher asks participants to answer a series of questions or respond to a series of statements and then return the responses to the researcher, are known specifically as questionnaire” (chap. 5.2).

Report Out

     My chosen article is focused on students with ADHD. The article focuses on off-task and disruptive behavior in children with ADHD. The data used in this article is qualitative in a meta-analytic review. The qualitative case study’s purpose was to determine if classroom-based physical activities would affect student off-task behaviors during instruction and students’ perceptions of the ability to focus before and after activities. The data that I used for my week two-research report was qualitative. According to Hanson and Wiebelhaus (2016), “Three students were purposively selected as participants. Data were collected using interviews, video recordings, field notes, and off-task behavior frequency charts and analyzed using a constant comparative method” (para. 1). There are several counts from an educator’s perceptions, along with quoted field notes of the participant’s responses.


Daniel, B. K. (2019). What constitutes a good qualitative research study? fundamental dimensions and indicators of rigour in qualitative research: The TACT framework. Kidmore End: Academic Conferences International Limited. doi:

Goertzen, M. J. (2017). Chapter 3: Introduction to Quantitative Research and Data. Library Technology Reports, 53(4), 12

Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators (5th ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

Wiebelhaus, S. E., & Hanson, M. F. (2016). Effects of classroom-based physical activities on off-task behaviors and attention: Kindergarten case study. The Qualitative Report, 21(8), 1380-1393. Retrieved from