effectiveness of verbal communication with non-verbal communication

1.Why is nonverbal communication so important? How can you tell when non-verbal communication is effective?

Communication involves far more than merely words. The majority of communication, in fact, occurs through the use of facial expressions and bodily movements. Many, in fact, view non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions and bodily movements, are providing more communication than words. “Research shows that 65 percent to 93 percent of communication is nonverbal” and includes not just facial expressions and bodily movements, but also how close together people stand and the tone they use to speak (Widhalm, 2005).

The fact that non-verbal communication is such a significant part of communication means that its impact is also significant and can be more significant than merely the words used to communicate. People often plan their message by determining which words to use to communicate but neglect to consider the non-verbal communication they use. To understand when non-verbal communication is effective or not, therefore, one needs to consider whether the person receiving the non-verbal communication walks away with the message the speaker/communicator wanted that person to have.


Widhalm, S. (2005). What did you say? Body language often more telling than words. The Times. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4845950/What-did-you-say-Body.html

2.What factors should you consider when you choose a communication channel for your messages? Should you always use the richest channel? Why or why not?

Communication channels can be described in terms of their richness. Richness refers to “the degree to which a channel is able to convey the amount of information transmitted in face-to-face communication” (Bowman, 2002). Face-to-face communication, as it provides both verbal and non-verbal communication, is considered the richest form. However, a communication channel should be selected on the basis of how effective it will be in accomplishing the goals of the communication. The three basic channel forms are oral, written, and non-verbal. The type of message being delivered, the perceived reception to the message (happy, confusion, anger, etc.), the ability to deliver the message clearly, and the length of the message are all factors that should be considered when selecting channels.

The richest channel may not be the best option at all times. There are times when clarity and the need to ensure all details are properly noted make written communication better but there are times when the need to be empathetic or helpful require the message to be provided orally and preferably face-to-face. It is the considerations that help determine which channel to use and this means that not all channels are appropriate for all circumstances.


Bowman, J. P. (2002). Understanding communication channels. . Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bowman/channels.html

3.When you develop messages, what factors should you consider as you choose your words? Which considerations do you think are most important? Why?

Although editing and writing are necessary in developing any written or oral communication for best effect, too many people fail to understand the need to carefully select words for their messages. Words communicate not only dictionary meanings but also, through the connotations associated with words, communicate much more. Some words are also considered to be kind while others are viewed as harsh and can upset persons even when they both communicate the same “dictionary meaning” (Connotation, 2010). All of these facts directly indicate that words must be carefully selected.

When deciding which words to use, of course, one must consider their dictionary meanings, their connotations, and how clearly they communicate the message one wants to communicate (Connotation, 2010). A failure to do this can easily lead to miscommunication. One must also consider how persons from different backgrounds and cultures will understand certain words (Wildhalm, 2005). If one does not understand that different cultures will interpret certain words differently then one may end up insulting others or failing to property communicate needs and meaning to them.


Connotation and denotation: how word choice affects a paragraph. (2010). Ohio Department of Education. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://ims.ode.state.oh.us/ODE/IMS/Lessons/Content/CER_LP_S02_BC_L08_I02_01.pdf

Widhalm, S. (2005). What did you say? Body language often more telling than words. The Times. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4845950/What-did-you-say-Body.html

4.How should the needs and expectations of your reader affect the structure of your writing? Why does it matter?

The reader of any written work should be considered the audience. As with any theater audience, the party providing the show, in this case the writing, needs to understand that the goal of the writing is to communicate to the reader and provide him or her a desired message (Writing, 2010). To properly communicate to an audience one needs to know their needs and expectations. What do they want to know about? How should one inform them? How can one hold their interest so they learn what it is one wants them to know or learn? These are all questions one needs to ask to create a writing that people will read and benefit from.

Only by answering these questions can one properly meet the needs and expectations of readers. For example, if one is addressing busy professionals one will need to put important information first and create a document that is brief but effective. If one is addressing persons who need to have extensive information about a subject, however, one will normally structure a document so it has a summary section and then an analytical section that provides greater detail. The proper structure will ensure that readers obtain the needed message, that they enjoy obtaining the message, and that they have all they need to obtain a complete message.


Writing guide: audience. (2010). . Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/processes/audmod/

5.Why do so many people ignore or delete email messages? How can you boost the chances that your target audience will read your message?

Email messages have become a common, and often overused, method of communication in business and life. At one time people in business relied on business letters to communicate but today they are more likely to use email messages. Unfortunately, while people view business letters as professional communications that require formal writing, they tend to view email messages as informal communications. This, often means that they do not include important facts, details, information, clarification, or use acronyms, abbreviations, or are not clear enough (Writer’s, 2000). It also means that too many people send e-mail messages for unimportant or even trivial reasons. All of these things help many consider emails unimportant and helps them delete or ignore such messages. To boost the chances that a target audience will read one’s message one must treat the email as a professional correspondence, provide a subject heading, and use language the provides full information and detail.


Writer’s notebook. (2000). Public Relations Quarterly. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-67446874.html

6.What are your options for creating an effective opening “hook” for a verbal presentation? Why should you be careful about using humor?

Opening hooks for a presentation should be targeted to capture the interest of a particular audience. This means that they need to be unique so that they properly engage the specific audience one is speaking to. All audiences prefer to know about what interests them, not what the speaker is interested in. To create an effective hook, therefore, a speaker needs to create a hook that shows the audience members that they should be interested in what the speaker is talking about. Anecdotes, a statement that creates doubt or disbelief, opinions, and statistics can all be used to engage an audience or “hook” them (Fallon, 2007). Hooks can also speak about what the presentation will cover, what the audience can obtain from the presentation, why the presentation will help the audience, and what benefits the audience will gain from listening (Fallon, 2007). Humor may be very effective if a presentation can be respected after it is “introduced” through humor, if the presenter can effectively deliver the humor, or if the humor will not insult or bore members of the audience. These are very difficult things to accomplish, however, and humor also presents a risk that most presenters do not successfully overcome.


Fallon, J. (2007). Get the audience’s attention: your opening ‘hook’. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Get-the-Audiences-Attention:-Your-Opening-Hook&id=549814

7.Compare an S corporation with a limited liability company. Why do you think limited liability companies are currently more popular than S corporations?

Subchapter S corporations were created to provide business owners who needed limited liability protection a way to avoid the double taxation that corporations normally experience. The Internal Revenue Service allowed owners of fairly small or medium sized businesses to elect to be taxed as Sub S corporations so that they could avoid having to pay income taxes on corporate income and then their personal income if they paid themselves bonuses or salaries and failed to have any end-of-year profits in the Sub S corporation (Allen, 2005). In exchange for this, however, the Internal Revenue Service placed significant restraints on the businesses. For example, the Internal Revenue Service only allowed human beings to be shareholders in Sub S corporations and did not allow more than a certain number of persons to be shareholders.

Limited Liability Companies, LLCs, however, did not have these restrictions and also allowed business owners to avoid double taxation and obtain limited liability protection (Allen, 2005). The greater flexibility and the fewer restraints provided LLC owners, therefore, encouraged former Sub S owners to change their companies into LLCs and encouraged new business owners to open LLCs rather than Sub S firms. In effect, LLCs have fewer requirements and provide the same benefits as Sub S corporations. This alone made LLCs a more popular option.


Allen, R. T. (2005). The LLC, C Corp and Sub S decision in a nutshell. The National Public Accountant. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/law-firms-attorneys/535097-1.html

8.There are two major types of franchising arrangements: distributorships and business format franchising. Explain the differences between these two arrangements and give a common example of each.

Franchising agreements allow certain persons or corporations to use the trademarks, patents, business processes, and other business assets or knowledge owned by or invented by others for their own business enterprises. Although the franchise owners remains the owners of these things, he or she allows others, for a price, to use them as their own through contractual arrangements. These arrangements can take the form of a distributorship or a business format franchise. Few consumers even realize that distributors are not the corporate owner.

A distributorship is a form of franchising where the franchisor allows the franchisee to use the insignia, trademarks, recipes, formats, or products of the franchisor to sell for profit (Franchising, 2005). Coca Cola and Pepsi, for example, allow distributors to package, create, and sell their sodas to others using the Coca Cola or Pepsi trademarks and recipes. In comparison, a business format franchise, such as McDonalds allows franchisees to build storefronts that resemble corporate owned stores so that they sell the product in the same way the franchisor sells them (Franchising, 2005). Many consumers, in fact, are often unable to tell the difference between corporate owned or franchisee owned business format franchising establishments.


Franchising lingo basics. (2005). World Franchising Network. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://www.worldfranchising.com/articles/Franchising-Lingo-Basics/

9.What are the main advantages and disadvantages of a business format franchise arrangements for the franchisee? For the franchisor?

A franchise business survives on the fact that all consumers, regardless of where or when they come in contact with a franchisee, can expect the same quality of product and service and to fully recognize and understand the products and services provided. Franchise businesses offer franchisor’s the ability to expand their sales and market share without bearing the full cost of expansion as franchisees pay franchisors to be able to carry on their businesses.

The advantages of a business format franchise arrangement for a franchisee is that he or she obtains full business management and operations instructions from a franchisor that has already developed a successful business model and process (Buyer, 2008). The franchisee also obtains a good trademark that many recognize so it does not have to introduce or familiarize others with the product or services (Buyer, 2008). However, franchisees lack the ability to make unique business decisions as the franchisor controls operations and methods of business. The benefit for the franchisor is that, of course, the business expands through the financial contributions of the franchisee and the franchisee, not the franchisor bears the risk of a “new” store. However, the risk for the franchisor is that a franchisee may not properly uphold the image or follow the business model developed by the franchisor and this can dilute the value or power of the franchise (Buyer, 2008).


Buying a franchise: a consumer guide. (2008). Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://business.ftc.gov/documents/inv05-buying-franchise-consumer-guide