Environmental Science and Scientific Theories

Environmental Science and Scientific Theories

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Question 1.

Apparently, environment can be defined as the inclusion of things, animals, people and plants that co-exist in given surroundings, habitat, domain or geographical area (Singh, 2006). On the other hand, Environmental Science deals with the study of environmental systems through an integrated interdisciplinary approach; for example plants, mountains and animals. When it comes to renewable Resources, they are defined as the resources that are re-usable as they get replaced naturally. Some of the good examples include timber, oxygen, solar energy and biomass (Ford, 2000).

However, Non-Renewable Resources refer to the resources that have economic value but cannot get replaced by natural means as their requisition takes very many years. Apparently, natural gas, oil, fossil fuels and coal cannot be replaced and thus their use is non-renewable (Ford, 2000). On the other hand, Ecosystem Services refers to the benefits obtained from ecosystem. Some of these services include; diseases control, climate control, food and water provision, recreational services and crop pollination (Smith, 2004).

Environmental problem and its Impact to Environment

One of the prevalent problems that the environment is facing is deforestation. Apparently, this is the illegal or uncontrollable cutting of trees without replacing them. As a result, many countries have been faced with droughts due to lack of rainfall hence resulting to food shortage (Smith, 2004). The habitats for wild animals have also been affected for a long time as a result of destruction of their homes. In a bid to remedy the situation, the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) had to intervene with a solution of encouraging people to plant two trees when they cut one. Moreover, every country is expected to protect its natural habitats, that is, the forests and ensure that the forest cover is at least ten percent among other environmental conservation rules (Singh, 2006).

Question 2

Scientific Theory

A scientific theory is a theoretical hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested but it is yet to be concluded as a fact therefore forming a framework of facts and observations. In order for the theory to become widely accepted, it must be tested repeatedly and proven to be a fact (Singh, 2006).

Process of Scientific Method


The step involves observations of a sequence of events that one may want to change or solve. Besides, the step involves conduction of investigations in a bid to try and find out why something is happening the way it does.

Problem Statement

This is the identification of the specific scientific testable problem under research; the broad problem is narrowed down to a single specific test.


Apparently, hypothesis is a single statement that summarises the scientific fact that is to be proved or disapproved and the reason for picking the hypothesis in question. In this section, the hypothesis cannot be changed even if your findings differ; scientific experiments are not about right or wrong but about proving or disapproving facts (Smith, 2004).


When it comes to predictions, this involves comparing the results which will be achieved with the theoretical aspects set for the scientific fact.


In the scientific experiment, a number of variables are involved and tested and they include; dependent variable, that is, the specimen that is to be tested, secondly, the controlled variables, which are some of the things that never change in an experiment; Finally, the independent variable, which involves the aspect that can be changed so as to achieve results (Smith, 2004).


After conducting the experiment, the results have to be tabulated as they are without any alterations whether they are right or wrong.


This section involves the comparison of the experimental findings to the theoretical values as well as discussing how they relate to the theoretical fact. In case the fact has not been proven, the reasons for the errors are discussed here (Smith, 2004).


The conclusion summarises whether the dependent variable is proportional to the scientific fact in question and if not, the reasons behind it (Singh, 2006).

Report Writing

Finally, the whole process has to be documented exactly as it was conducted in a report, not forgetting the findings.


Ford, E. D. (2000). Scientific method for ecological research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Singh, Y. K. (2006). Environmental science. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.

Smith, T. (2004). Renewable energy resources. Mankato, MN: Weigl Publishers.

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