Ethics and Evidence-Based Research

Ethics and Evidence-Based Research



Ethics and Evidence-Based Research

Part 1:

In my opinion, the ethical safeguards structured for clinical research may not be feasible or appropriate for evidence-based practice or evidence-based practice implementation projects since they have the influence of reducing the scope for evidence collection, treatment of subjects including the decision making. The ethical safeguards structured for clinical research might reduce the collection and use of information based on the human subjects. The evidence-based practice ensures that the best evidence is available regardless of the source of the evidence. There is need for most researchers to work in accordance with the ethical safeguards designed for clinical research (Lawrence, 2019). They should follow all the ethical safeguards in clinical research to enable them expand their research projects. In contrary, the evidence-based practice ensure that the best evidence is available for the healthcare practice and clinical decisions within the society. This means the ethical safeguards structured for clinical research are not to interfere with the process of finding the best evidence. Therefore, the ethical safeguards may interfere with the evidence-based practice regarding the same. The evidence-based practice includes the application of case studies, on-site investigations and the application of the human subjects to collect more data on diseases. Furthermore, the evidence-based practice involves getting information concerning the patient’s past records to ensure the availability of the best research evidence.

  • Description of why ethical safeguards designed for clinical research are not appropriate for evidence-based practice implementation projects.

Part 2:

There are actual strategies in the implementation of the evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI).The strategies include performance feedback, leadership support, external and internal facilitation in the evaluation and provision of the patient education. The ethical exemplars narrates about the deaths in various American intensive care units ICUs each year through the catheter —-related infections and the improvements of the patients’ safety. It suggest the application of the evidence based procedures required by the Center for Disease Control and prevention. The issues include hand washing, application of the full barrier precautions, avoiding of the possible femoral site for catheter insertion and removal of unnecessary catheters. Ethical safeguards structured for clinical research puts the limits on the involvement of subjects in research and places limits on the kind of information that is collected. In the evidence-based practice, the research workers are responsible for the production of evidence. The ethical safeguards designed for clinical research are strict on who should access the patients’ information and the essence of requiring consent. In such relation, the ethical safeguards can influence the work of the research workers within any entity. The ethical safeguards designed for clinical research can also hinder the five steps of the evidence-based practice. There are various steps including the asking of questions, searching, critically appraising the information, implementing, and evaluating. The ethical safeguards designed for clinical research require that there is passing of information to the subjects on the reasons behind the research and should volunteer to participate in the research. Alternatively, the evidence-based practice steps should gather the information required for clinical decision making. In such a situation, there is violation of ethical safeguard within the clinical practice. For this reason, ethical safeguards designed for clinical research may not be feasible or appropriate for evidence-based practice or evidence-based practice implementation projects due to the conflicting objectives. The controversies relate to the four ethical principles by universal applications in various nursing and healthcare services. The healthcare services that are concerned by the protection and well-being of both the nurses and the patients.

  • Discussion of the three main ethical controversies related to implementing Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) Initiatives

Part 3:

The ethical principles is vital for the foundation nursing as it concerns on the social justice and the welfare of the sick, injured including the vulnerable. The nursing ethics encompasses the provision of the effective nursing care for individuals in the society such as the prevention of illnesses. It also include the provision of healthcare services such as alleviation of suffering, protection, promotion and the restoration of health in the care individuals. Nurses act to change the aspects of social structures that detract from health and well-being of patients and the healthcare professionals (Butts, & Rich, 2019). The nursing professionals require to focus on the ideals and moral norms of the profession embracing the ethical tradition of nursing such as endurance, self-reflective and distinctive. There are various perspectives for addressing the existing ethical experiences within nursing and healthcare services through adoption of ethical theories. The theories include humanist, feminist, cultivating of virtues, social ethics and adherence to ethical principles. There are various ethical principles influencing the concept of patients having an ethical responsibility in improving healthcare. They include the respect for human dignity, relationship to patients, the right of the self-determination and the nature of the health problems. Respect for human dignity is a fundamental principle underlining all the nursing practice with respect to dignity and human rights of every patient. The principle prompts all the nurses’ to maintain and take into account the requirements and values of everyone within the professional relationship. The values and the domains of the principle have conflicting precepts between the nurses and the patients as patients might pressure the nurses to fulfill their requirements. The relationship to patients is also a conflicting ethical principle that require universal healthcare that transcend in all individual differences in the nursing practice. The nurses always establish their relationships with the patients while delivering their nursing services with respect to human values without prejudice (Stanak, 2019). The relationship conflict when some patients’ think is a must for the nursing to treat them perfectly in any circumstances. The nature of the health problems is another ethical principle respecting the worth, dignity and the rights of the patients irrespective of the nature of the health problem. The functionally of the principle is influenced when the patient demand their share of good treatment without the consideration of the status or the nurses. All the ethical principles might be conflicting the patients’ participation in healthcare.

  • Identification of the ethical principles conflicting with the concept of patients having an ethical responsibility in improving healthcare

There are various method in which to resolve ethical conflicts in healthcare such creation of an environment where nurses can air their views on the problems they face within the workplace. The environment supporting and empowering the nurses to address their challenges would be a solution to some of the problems posed by ethical principles. There should be the provision of the ethical experts to counsel both the patients and the nursing professional within various healthcare institutions. Other resolution techniques include the sponsoring of ethics journal or books club to provide the nurses and patients with the opportunities to learn principles that are more ethical their application within the healthcare.

  • Discussion of how these conflicts may be resolved


Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2019). Nursing ethics. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lawrence, J. (2019). Argument for Action: Ethics and Professional Conduct: Ethics and Professional Conduct. Routledge.

Review the sectioned headed, Two Ethical Exemplars in Chapter 22 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015, pages 518-519

Stanak, M. (2019). Professional ethics: the case of neonatology. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy22(2), 231-238.