Evolution theory was first stated by Charles Darwin, a process involving changes of living organisms over a period based on physical and behavioral heritable changes. The first book he wrote about this theory was in 1859 and it clearly stated that for organism to adapt in the environment in order to survive and produce more offspring, there must be changes (Richards, 2016). Evolution by natural selection theory is most validated in science’s history, reinforced by scientific evidence such as genetics, paleontology and geology. Herein, evolution theory and how it has developed over the years is discussed.
Although Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has remained to be among the strongest theories that explains the natural world ever, it did not deeply give clear understanding. New development in science and technology have advanced Darwin’s original idea. During his discoveries, he was not able to identify appearance of changes in species such as thick coat of fur and long beak (Liu, 2018). These appearances are hereditary, meaning they are passed from one generation to another. Darwin lacked the idea of genes passing from parents to offspring and also other scientists of the time.
Charles Darwin was the main theorist of evolution and later other scientists came with their ideas. Bowler (2016), suggested that Gregor Mendel was another theorist who tried his idea on inheritance patterns in pea plants but he was unsuccessful as nobody paid attention to his theory. At a later period of 1905, another theorist called William Bateson came up with the genetics idea, in fact it was implementation of Mendel’s theory. He viewed the different of species in a molecular and genetic level and his theory was fruitful in 1952 when DNA structure was decoded by Cambridge scientists. After that other scientists discovered how genes are passed down and how species changes are connected to changes in the genetic code.
Bowler, P. (2016). Darwin and DNA. New Scientist, 231(3088), 39-43.
Liu, Y. (2018). Natural Selection and Pangenesis: The Darwinian Synthesis of Evolution and Genetics. In Advances in genetics (Vol. 102, pp. 121-142). Academic Press.
Richards, R. J. (2016). Darwin’s theory of natural selection and its moral purpose. Debates in Nineteenth-Century European Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses, 211-225.