Final masters Paper

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presentation on the human resource functions within an organization that focuses on global expansion. Also, write a 2-3 page paper explaining how these functions can help to achieve organization success, while operating globally

An organization that has its sights set on a global expansion must have in place a very robust human resource management team. An organization is only as good its employees, this is even more so when dealing with a global endeavor. First and foremost, the organization must have a clear mission statement of why this is important to the future of the organization. Otherwise, what would be the point of an individual leaving familiar comforts of home and family life, if they didn’t feel as if the work/ culture of the organization weren’t something worth the extra effort? HR must work with the leadership of the organization to develop the reasoning behind the movement. This means HR and management must conduct a thorough SWOT analysis of the situation through study of the target market, the customer base that the company is going for, the resources available, the brand recognition of the product being offered, and an organization’s planned level of involvement including setting up a presence in the host nation. The type of products and scope of work will affect which strategy is pursued for the maximum amount of return for effort and resources expended.

HRM would be responsible for initially deciding exactly where the center of activity would take place, coordinated with other sections of the organization so that resources could be readily assessable. This placement would be coordinated with the local partners or government that was the initial draw of the organization. HRM would set up a team of professionals well versed in the cultural and business dealings of the host region in order to overcome cultural and political roadblocks. The HRM would also launch a public relations campaign of why this organization is beneficial to the local populous. This would minimize external conflicts and possible risk to employees. A local populous that buys into the organization would be an asset rather than an obstacle which would free up other resources that might otherwise have to be used to mitigate the risk to personnel, property, or legal actions. This means that employees must be thoroughly vetted, screened, and trained in the local culture to also help minimize the disruption that an outside entity might cause. The HR section would also coordinate to hire on the local populous for jobs, both in management and lower level employment. This means that the host nation sees its citizens as part of the organization and a partner. It could also act as an internal sounding board to avoid potentially embarrassing breaches of social norms and nuances that might be well-known.

HR must also be ready to supply life support functions to its native home employees that choose to relocate. This could mean setting up different HRM organizations, like HR cells in various areas if everything is not centrally located. Certain services would be contracted locally, while others would mean reaching back to fill requirements not able to be filled in the host nation. This would mean generating a list of approved and vetted sub-contractors and contractors.

The organization could also enter into joint partnerships with the host nation’s organizations to fulfill the mission statement.

Subcontracting or licensing the production of certain goods or services to a foreign partner.

Entering into a joint venture with a foreign partner.

Setting up operations (making a direct investment) in the form of a foreign branch or subsidiary.

Individualism or collectivism

Individualistic societies value the development of and focus on the individual; collective societies value group relationships.

Power distance

The extent to which a society is hierarchical, and how power is distributed among its members.

Uncertainty avoidance

The extent to which a society feels comfortable with ambiguity and values and encourages risk-taking.

Quantity versus Quality of Life

List and explain the four common challenges leadership faces

The first of the four common challenges that leadership faces are the work life/ personal life balance with the workers. The leadership of the organization must insure that they balance the needs of the corporation with the needs of employees. This means that the organization will still operate in such a matter as to maximize profits and opportunities, but ethically and with considering the needs of its employees. The next challenge a leader faces is having the knowledge of how to organize and put into deploy his group in a way that yields the maximum performance. The leader must be prepared to intervene when necessary in an effective and timely manner. This also means that a manager or leader must not only have a strong knowledge of the organization’s operating procedures but must also know their employees. They must know each employee’s level of knowledge and skill for the task that they are given. This also means knowing their level of knowledge across the spectrum. The third challenge is ensuring that there is effective communication with active listening and feedback. This must occur whether your employee conflict is present or not. Leaders must seek out opinions and bring clarification through explanation in order to head off misunderstandings. And finally, one of the most important challenges facing leadership is motivation from the leadership. Leadership must always present a clear purpose and reason why the organization and leadership do things the way that they do. Employees can make better decisions and insights into issues if they have a clear understanding of not only the task but the reasoning behind the need for the task.

References:

Mello, J. A. (2015). Strategic Human Resource Management, 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning

Pershing, James A. (2006). Handbook of Human Performance Technology, 3rd Edition. 3 ed. Washington D.C.: Pfeiffe

The Employment-at- Will is a doctrine developed as part of British common law which applies to many states in the U.S. List the major exceptions to the doctrine.

The first major exception to the doctrine of employment at will is the unions. Union employees are covered by agreements which are binding and very specific about what an employee can be terminated for, only after certain allocations are made. And the railroads are an example of this, to the point that an employee can ask for a union legal expert to argue against termination if the union feels that it is not justified. The public-policy exception to employment at will is when an organization terminates an employee that is a direct violation of an accepted public policy that the State has established. This means there is a legal precedence set forth. This means an employee cannot be terminated for refusing to do something illegal or filing a claim for worker’s compensation for injuries that occurred at work while performing their job. Implied-contract exception to the employment-at-will doctrine

is an unwritten agreement between an employer and employee with no express, written instrument that covers the employment relationship. Employment is not governed by a contract, but the employer can make oral or written representations to employees which set an expectation of job security and procedures that cover adverse employment actions if needed. This represents an understood contract for employment. The final exception is the covenant of good faith exception which is not as widely accepted. It is accepted by only 11 states but is still part of some states’ laws. It states that an employer’s action to terminate must be made with cause and without malice or lack of reasonable purpose. An employee cannot be terminated without a good reason or warning that would cause undue burden to the employee without a justified reason.

Muhl, Charles J. (2001) Employment At Will. The Employment-At-Will Doctrine: Three Major Exceptions

https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/01/art1full.pdf

Hofstede’s Cultural Differences Dimensions explains cultural differences along four dimensions. In your own words, list and explain each dimensions

Hofstede’s Cultural Differences Dimensions explains cultural differences along four dimensions. These dimensions describe how people interact with each other within the confines of an organization. The first dimension is power distance index, which means how the power to lead is distributed (Mello, 2015). This means is there a strong hierarchy or is it more of a democratic system of shared power. The strong hierarchy means that there is clear purpose and direction, but at the extremes, the organization’s lower tier personnel lose initiative on their own accord and wait on direction. The other end of this spectrum means that everyone has a voice, but it could mean that if a decision must be made quickly without consulting the group for input and feedback, then there is a risk of angering the group, since independence is the main purpose of this dimension (Mello, 2015). The next dimension is individualism versus collectivism which covers interpersonal connections. Specifically, this covers whether there is a greater need for the individual to succeed with personal accomplishments to be celebrated which means individualism. The other end of this spectrum is the collective good over personal gain or recognition. This means that social harmony overrides personal preference, with work never mixing with social gatherings or events (Mello, 2015). The third is uncertainty avoidance, which means whether a group is willing to take risk or is pragmatic and wishes to negate as much risk as possible (Mello, 2015). The risk-taking part of this spectrum is more open-minded and willing to hear from the collective. This part of the spectrum is slow to decision. The other side of this dimension is more conservative and more focused on the regulations of the organization with rigid guidelines. Structure is very important to them. The final dimension I will be covering is masculine and feminine dimension. The masculine is more of an “Type A”, “win at all costs” type of personnel. This side of the spectrum values winning and success.

above other things and is willing to work late to get it. The other side of the spectrum is the feminine. This side of the dimension is more reflective of the workforce today. There is more of an emphasis on the work/life balance over material success. Relationships hold a greater sway than material possessions and money.

MindTools.com. (2011). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm

Mello, J. A. (2015). Strategic Human Resource Management, 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning

With international expansion, there are strategies for expanding internationally, list and explain these strategies and their impact on the business.

There are five strategies being presented today for expanding internationally including how these strategies impact organizations (Manzella 1999). A through study of the target market, the customer base that the company is going for, the resources available, the brand recognition of the product being offered, and an organization’s planned level of involvement will affect which strategy is pursued for the maximum amount of return for effort and resources expended. The first strategy covered is indirect exporting. This means that the organization goes through some type of intermediary such as a trading company or other organization to sell their product. This strategy minimizes the risk of resources being lost to the company and allows the seller and buyer to be unknown if they so choose, but also means that there is a loss of control for how the product is presented. It also means less of a return due to more organizations being part of the process. The next strategy to be discussed is direct exporting, which means that the goods produced are marketed, shipped, and sold by the manufacturer. The advantage of this method is there is fewer organizations involved which means bigger profits and more risk. Joint ventures and strategic alliances are another way for an organization to become part of an overseas market without setting up a presence in another country (Manzella 1999). Joint ventures are when two or more businesses come together to form a partnership with clearly defined roles, responsibilities, and rewards. It can be for one project or a long term agreement. A strategic alliance is more of an informal agreement to work together as along the agreement is mutually beneficial. Licensing technology is another way to break in to a foreign market without having to navigate hostile or difficult foreign markets. This technology includes intellectual properties such as patents, trademarks, techniques, marketing strategies, and managerial processes. Foreign acquisitions are the final strategies being covered. This is when a foreign investor buys a controlling stock or completely acquires an organization in another country and perpetuates the organizations product. This by far the most risky of the strategies because the organization is now fully invested in a foreign company and is now subject to the host countries’ laws and regulations (Manzella 1999).

Manzella, John (1999). Strategic Options for Global Expansion

http://manzellareport.com/index.php/trade-finance/403-strategic-options-for-global-expansion

Mello, J. A. (2015). Strategic Human Resource Management, 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning

90% of Fortune 500 organizations evaluate HR operations on basis of three metrics: List and explain these three metric

There are three metrics that 90% of Fortune 500 organizations evaluate HR operations which are employee retention and turnover, corporate moral, and employee satisfaction. Employee retention is very important to an organization. A successful organization must not only have the ability to attract quality employees but be able to retain those employees. This means that efforts and expense paid to screen, hire, and train an employee are not a wasted asset that is lost in less than a year. Losing an employee in a year or less is employee turnover and is loss to the organization. Corporate moral is another metric by which a corporation or organization is measured. This is another way of measuring returns invested in human capital for a corporation. It measures the overall satisfaction and well-being that an employee feels towards their organization and job. An employee who feels invested in their organization will always be more productive and invested than a disgruntled employee who holds contempt and general lack of motivation for their organization. And the final metric is employee satisfaction, which is how much satisfaction an employee feels working for an organization. It also covers how satisfaction an employee receives from doing his job and being part of their organization. According to studies conducted, the integrated management of human capital can result in 47% increase in market value for an organization. This means an almost 50% return on an investment in good human resource practices (Mello 2015). The study goes on to say that the top 10% of organizations that were studied experienced 391% return on the proper investment in the management of human capital, which is an staggering almost 400% return on the organizations investment in personnel (Mello 2015).

References:

Mello, J. A. (2015). Strategic Human Resource Management, 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning




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