The Historical American Fire Problem and the Current Trends – PowerPoint Presentation

The Historical American Fire Problem and the Current Trends

FIR 3303 Introduction to Fire PreventionColumbia Southern University

Learning Objectives

Define the national fire problemDescribe the history of fire preventionDescribe philosophy and timing behind regulations of fire preventionIdentify agencies and organizations that had been crucial in forming fire prevention efforts in USACompare and contrast the fire problem and prevention between USA and other countriesIdentify and describe current trends

The National Fire Problem

In 2016, 1,342,000 fires has been reported in the United StatesThese fires caused:3,390 civilian deaths14,650 civilian injuries $10.6 billion in property damageThe three main types of these fire were:Outside fires Structure firesVehicles fires

National Fire Protection Association, 2017

The National Fire Problem (Cont’d)

In 2016, fire fighters responded to a fire every 24 secondsEvery 66 seconds a structure fire were reportedEvery 90 seconds one private home structure caught fire Every 34 minutes one person suffered fire injuriesEvery 2 hours and 35 minutes one person died to fire accidents Every 48 seconds one outside fire was reported Every 3 minutes 2 seconds one vehicle fire was reported (only in highways)

National Fire Protection Association, 2017

The National Fire Problem (Cont’d)

Fig. 1. Gary Bowker, 2013

Fig.2. The Associated Press, 2013

Fig.3. David Tracy, 2017

History of Fire Problem

500.000 B.C.: first evidences of use of fire for heat and light purposes (Diamantes, 2015)64 A.D.: the biggest fire of Rome caused by Emperor NeroLondon 1212: one of the worst recorded fire occurred in LondonLondon 1666: known as the “great inferno”Chicago 1871: fire destroyed more than half of the citySan Francisco 1906: one of the largest man-made fire in the U.S. Tokyo 1923: as consequence of an earthquake the fire destroyed the majority of the city of Tokyo.

Arthur E. Cote, 2008

History of Fire Problem (Cont’d)

Fig.4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Jeff Danelek, 2011

History of Fire Prevention

300 B.C.: formation of the Familia Publica during the Roman Empire24 B.C.: Emperor Augustus formed the first fire department called “Corps of Vigiles1000 A.D.: first regulations to prevent fires in England1500 A.D.: in England first regulation for bakers and candle makers1666 A.D.: the great fire of London opened the door to the first Building Act1638: Pennsylvania legislators passed the first non-smoking law1735: institution of the first fire insurance company in United States. 1912: publication of the first treatise of fire prevention.

Diamantes, 2016

Philosophy of Fire Prevention

The philosophy behind fire prevention is:Protect lives Protect propertiesProtect the environmentThis is achieved through two methods:Passive fire preventionActive fire prevention

Philosophy of Fire Prevention (Cont’d)

Passive fire prevention:RockwoolCeramic fiberCalcium silicate platesVermiculite platesGypsum platesIntumescent materialsSpray on cement based materials

Steinar Lundberg, 1994

Philosophy of Fire Prevention (Cont’d)

Active fire prevention:Sprinkler systemsFoam systemsWater curtainSmoke evacuation systemsDetection systemsShut down systems

Steinar Lundberg, 1994

Philosophy of Fire Prevention (Cont’d)

Fig.7 Buildings, 2008

Timing of Fire Prevention

Fire prevention can be done in two ways:Reactive Proactive

Fig.8 My SMCC, n-d

Fire Prevention Agencies in USA

Many agencies has been crucial in the effort of fire prevention in the USA. Some examples are:Charleston’s Friendly Society for the Mutual Insuring of Houses Against FirePhiladelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by FireNational Board of Fire UnderwritersFactory Mutual SystemsU.S. Fire AdministrationNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA)Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Diamantes, 2016

U.S. Fires vs Other Countries

Similarities

U.S. like other countries invested in:Training Drills and exercisesMutual agreements between governmental and non-governmental agenciesSuccessful awareness programs with the focus in lowering fire accidents

Differences

U.S has a strong culture in relying in insurance companies to prevent loss due to firesOther countries do not have the insurance culture to prevent accidentsU.S. has robust proactive approach to fire prevention through inspectionsOther countries have general reactive approach U.S. buildings are more conductive to fire compared with other countries.

Current Trends

The U.S. Fire Administration reports a decrease in fire accidents for 2015 as follow:

Fires1,345,500in 2015-19.1%from 2006Deaths3,280in 2015-3.0%from 2006Injuries15,700in 2015-8.0%from 2006$ Loss$14.3 billionin 2015-20.4%* from 2006

U.S. Fire Administration, 2016

Current Trend (Cont’d)

U.S. Fire Administration, 2016

Conclusion

Fire has been very useful for human being but it has also been devastatingCatastrophic fire accidents started to occur more than 2000 years agoFire prevention started almost at the same timeIn the U.S. fire prevention advanced through fire insurance companiesEven if many improvements have been made in fire prevention, a fire safety culture has not been perceived yet as an individual responsibility

Summary

Define and analyze the national fire problemDescribe the history of fire preventionDescribe philosophy of fire preventionAnalyze the timing behind regulations for fire prevention and protectionIdentify and describe agencies and organizations that had been crucial in forming fire prevention efforts in USACompare and contrast the fire problem and prevention between USA and other countriesIdentify and describe current trends

References

National Fire Protection Association (2017). Fires in the U.S. Retrieved from https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics-and-reports/Fire-statistics/Fires-in-the-USGary Bowker (2013). Fig.1. Fighting Fires in Disposable Structures. Retrieved from http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-166/issue-3/features/fighting-fires-in-disposable-structures.htmlThe Associated Press (2013). Fig.2. Utah wildfire threatens hundreds of homes outside Park City. Retrieved http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/utah-wildfire-destroys-14-homes-article-1.1427363

References (Cont’d)

David Tracy (2017). Fig. 3. Here’s What Firefighters Do To Extinguish A Battery Fire On A Tesla Model S. Retrieved from https://jalopnik.com/watch-volunteer-firefighters-in-austria-extinguish-a-fi-1819665352David Diamantes (2016). Principles of fire prevention (updated 3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Arthur E. Cote (2008). History of Fire Protection Engineering. Retrieved from CSU Online Library.Jeff Danelek (2011). Top 10 Most Famous Fires in History. Retrieved from http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-most-famous-fires-in-history.php

References (Cont’d)

Steinar Lundberg (1994). Fire Protection and Regulation. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/corematerials/talat-lecture-2501-fire-protection-and-regulationBuildings (2008). The Basics of Passive Fire Protection. Retrieved fromhttps://www.buildings.com/article-details/articleid/5851/title/the-basics-of-passive-fire-protection-MySMCC (n-d). The Fire Service’s Mission. Retrieved from https://my.smccme.edu/ics/Academic_Departments/Fire_Science/Home_Page.jnz?portlet=Fire_Science_Community_Fire_Protection_ModelU.S. Fire Administration (2016). U.S. Fire Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/data/statistics/