Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

GEN 499 General Education Capstone

October 28, 2019

Introduction:

While it is difficult to analyze and understand a system as complex as the Earth’s eco- system, one thing is sure, climate change is real. There is strong evidence to support this claim and 97% or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that human activity is the leading cause.

Thesis Statement:

Climate change is a complex global issue encompassing many areas including science, economics, society and politics.  Even with awareness of climate change, emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise.  Impacts are already evident around the world and how we respond will determine the effect on future generations.

Annotation 1:

Reference:

Auffhammer, M. (2018). Quantifying Economic Damages from Climate Change. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(4), 33–52. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/

Annotation: This article recounts the billions of dollars and amount of time spent on studying the increased greenhouse emissions and changes in the reflectivity of the earth’s surface. In contrast there has been less effort, money, and time spent to understand how the earth’s physical changes represent the economic impacts. Professor Auffhammer explains how economists have calculated the social cost of carbon. The social cost of carbon is an estimate of damage caused from an additional ton of CO2 emitted at a certain point in time. He also discusses damage function, which is a mapping of climate into economic outcomes. The article contains maps, graphs, and tables explaining how conclusions and figures were obtained. Professor Auffhammer refers to studies and models cited and a long list of references to help make the information credible. This article can be used to support points in my paper referring to the effects of climate change on the economy and will support other sources I will use.

Annotation 2:

Reference:

Climate Change. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/climate-change/.

Annotation: This article discusses the global impacts of climate change and provides information pointing to human activities as the main cause. As our populations grow, the cumulative level of greenhouse gas emissions also rises. The article also suggests that irreversible changes in ecosystems and the planetary climate systems may have already been reached or passed. This source has references and links to panels, assessment reports, and development goals that further the value of the source. I will be able to use this source for information regarding causes and effects of climate change.

Annotation 3:

Reference:

Issitt, M. L., & Flynn, S. I. (2018). Greenhouse effect. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89158205&site=eds-live&scope=site

Annotation: This article discusses the greenhouse effect which is a naturally occurring process. The greenhouse process is necessary in order for us to exist. Some recent studies show that human activities have been accelerating this process. Global warming is a by-product of Greenhouse gas emissions and could cause life threatening events. Some of the effects include loss of ecosystems, rise in ocean level and even mass extinctions. Scientists, activists, energy companies, and politicians debate the options for controlling the acceleration of global warming and finding positive alternatives for the practices that cause the most harm. I was surprised to learn that scientists were concerned about the impact of human behavior as early as the 1880’s. Climate change became a serious issue in the 1980’s. There are some scientists that believe climate change is a naturally occurring heating and cooling process and that some have exaggerated the effects of human activity. This article explores some history of climate change and some newer research. There are numerous references that suggest this article was researched thoroughly. This article will be used for some definitions and to establish some historical data. It can also be used to show an alternative belief for the cause of the greenhouse effect.

Annotation 4:

Reference:

The Effects of Climate Change. (2019, September 30). Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/.

Annotation: This website has information concerning the evidence of climate change, the causes of climate change, the effects of climate change, a list of scientific societies and their opinions of climate change, and graphs showing carbon dioxide levels, the global temperature, arctic sea ice minimum, ice sheets, and sea level. With Earth orbiting satellites and other advancements, scientists have been able to collect different types of information on a global scale. Scientists use ice cores from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers to show how the Earth’s climate responds to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Evidence has also been found in tree rings, ocean sediments, coral reefs, and layers of rock. This evidence has shown that current warming is occurring approximately ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming. This website covers compelling evidence of climate change. Studies published in peer reviewed journals show that 97 per cent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that the trends of global warming over the last century were due to human activities. And most of the leading scientific organizations worldwide have issued public statements endorsing this statement. This source has many references and links to studies and Associations. I will be able to use this website to list all of the causes and effects of climate change and all of the studies by scientific organizations that back up the claims of climate change being caused mostly by human activities.

Annotation 5:

Reference:

WRIGHT, C., & NYBERG, D. (2017). An Inconvenient Truth: How Organizations Translate Climate Change into Business as Usual. Academy of Management Journal, 60(5), 1633–1661. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.5465/amj.2015.0718

Annotation: This article discusses climate change and refers to it as the grandest of challenges facing humanity. Mr. Wright and Mr. Nyberg charge that in two centuries of industrial development, we have changed the chemistry of our atmosphere and oceans. Business organizations are in the middle of the situation since they are part of the cause of the situation but are also attempting to find innovative ways to cut greenhouse emissions. This article describes the study of Australian corporations over a ten year period, (2005-2015). Using the study of these corporations, the three key stages in the corporate translation of climate change. Those stages are, framing, localizing, and normalizing. This article attempts to explain how over time when corporations are faced with the challenge of making good decisions for the environment, they are overcome by the desire to return to business imperatives. This article has numerous tables and graphs to explain the results of their study of Australian corporations. The article is quite lengthy and full of scientific language. There are many pages of references that add to the validity of the research. I will use this information to explain how corporations are both responsible to a certain extent for the activities that cause climate change and also in some way working to reverse that effect.

References:

Auffhammer, M. (2018). Quantifying Economic Damages from Climate Change. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(4), 33–52. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/

Climate Change. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/climate-change/.

Issitt, M. L., & Flynn, S. I. (2018). Greenhouse effect. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89158205&site=eds-live&scope=site

The Effects of Climate Change. (2019, September 30). Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/.

WRIGHT, C., & NYBERG, D. (2017). An Inconvenient Truth: How Organizations Translate Climate Change into Business as Usual. Academy of Management Journal, 60(5), 1633–1661. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.5465/amj.2015.0718