TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS (A=TRUE, B=FALSE)
1) Lithification is the general term for the processes that convert loose sediment into a
sedimentary rock. TRUE
2) Plant growth, such as roots growing in cracks, has little influence on mechanical
3) The principle of superposition states that in a stack of horizontal layers the OLDEST
layer is on top. FALSE
4) Sedimentary structures are features found in sedimentary rocks that provide clues that
help interpret their transport and deposition.
5) Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). TRUE
6) Pore pressure refers to the effect in which water forces grains apart. FALSE
7) Creep is very slow downslope movement of soil. TRUE
8) The amount of water in groundwater is much less than that in rivers and lakes. FALSE
9) How fast groundwater flows depends, in part, on the permeability of the sediment
through which it passes. TRUE
10) An unconfined aquifer is recharged rapidly, whereas a confined aquifer recharges slowly. TRUE
11) High stream velocity generally results in erosion and deposition of sediment. TRUE
12) The discharge of a stream is the volume of water that passes a given point in unit of time
(for example, 50 cubic meters per second). TRUE
13) A river terrace represents an abandoned river floodplain TRUE
14) Relative time refers to the time sequence in which events take place rather than the
number of years involved. TRUE
15) In an unconformity the contact represents a time gap in the geologic record.FALSE
16) In order of decreasing size (largest listed first), sedimentary grain sizes include ___.
A. clay, sand, silt, and gravel
B. gravel, sand, clay, and silt
C. sand, gravel, silt, and clay
D. gravel, sand, silt, and clay
E. gravel, silt, sand, and clay
17) _____ is a coarse-grained sedimentary rock formed by the cementation of rounded
A. Mega sandstone
B. Pebble rock
C. Boulder rock
18) ______ are sedimentary rocks deposited by direct precipitation of minerals from water.
A. Hydro rocks
B. Clastic rocks
C. Chemical rocks
D. Aquatic rocks
E. Biologic rocks
19) Oil and natural gas originate from _____ in marine sediments.
B. the earth’s interior
C. organic matter
E. comet impacts
20) Uniformitarianism is succinctly summarized by which phrase?
A. The future is the key to the present.
B. The present is the key to the past.
C. The past is the key to the present.
D. The present is the key to the future.
21) Which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?
A. Igneous intrusions form horizontal layers
B. Metamorphic isograds are horizontal before deformation.
C. Sediments are deposited as horizontal layers.
D. Most igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks in the Earth’s crust form
22) The upper surface of the saturated zone (aquifer) is called the ___.
A. water table
B. hard pan
C. saturated lid
D. recharge zone
E. head level
23) ________ refers to the ability of a rock to transmit fluids.
B. Hydraulic head
24) A(n) _______ is a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move
25) ___ is the percentage of a rock or sediment that consists of void space.
B. Void index
26) A(n) _____ is the rapid sliding of a mass of bedrock along an inclined surface of
A. debris flow
27) Resistance to movement or deformation of soil is called ___.
B. stiffness quotient
C. stress resistance
D. shear strength
28) One way to prevent slope failure is to ___.
A. drain ground water from the slope
B. Re-grade the slope so that it is more gently inclined
C. pin the rock onto the slope with rock bolts or other devices
D. Retain or establish vegetation to protect the slope
E. All of the answers are correct.
29) A(n) ___ stream flows in a criss-crossing network of rivulets (subchannels) around
30) As a flooding river spreads over a floodplain the water on the floodplain flows ______
the water in the channel.
A. faster than
B. as fast as
C. slower than
D. with greater turbulence than
E. with greater turbidity than
31) A cutoff meander may become a crescent-shaped ___.
A. Kettle Lake
B. Moraine Lake
C. Levee Lake
D. oxbow lake
E. Yazoo Lake
32) The Earth’s largest mass extinction (~250 Ma) coincides with _____ in Siberia.
A. a massive meteorite impact
B. massive volcanism
C. flooding of continental areas
D. expansion of glaciers
E. human-caused disease
MATCH EACH ROCK-TYPE WITH ITS APPROPRIATE DEPOSITIONAL
ENVIRONMENT (USE EACH LETTER ONLY ONCE).
33) limestone C
34) shale and chert D
35) sandstone with eolian A
36) delta deposits: interbedded sandstone, conglomerate, and shale B
USE THE FIGURE TO THE RIGHT TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
TRUE/FALSE (A = true;, B= false) QUESTIONS:
37) This figure shows an example of clast imbrication.
38) Layer A implies that sand was moving from right to
left, and layer B implies that sand was moving fromFALSE
left to right.
39) These features are typical of both aeolian and river deposition. TRUE
PLEASE MATCH THE APPROPRIATE TYPE OF MASS-WASTING WITH ITS
SPEED IN THE TABLE BELOW.
41) soil creepA
42) debris or rock avalancheC
Match the letters in the figure below with the appropriate type of unconformity.
43) angular unconformityA
INTERPRET THE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OR GEOLOGIC EVENT
INDICATED BY THE LETTERS IN THE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN.
46) beach sedimentary environment B
47) fluvial (river) sedimentary environment C
48) shallow-marine, warm-water depositional A
49) deep-sea sedimentary environmentD
50) In the figure to the right, how do you describe the overall sea-level change represented by this column of strata?
a) marine transgression
b) marine regression
c) marine transformation
d) one cannot tell from this section
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