Geology Questions

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TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS (A=TRUE, B=FALSE)

1) Lithification is the general term for the processes that convert loose sediment into a

sedimentary rock. TRUE

2) Plant growth, such as roots growing in cracks, has little influence on mechanical

weathering. FALSE

3) The principle of superposition states that in a stack of horizontal layers the OLDEST

layer is on top. FALSE

4) Sedimentary structures are features found in sedimentary rocks that provide clues that

help interpret their transport and deposition.

5) Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). TRUE

6) Pore pressure refers to the effect in which water forces grains apart. FALSE

7) Creep is very slow downslope movement of soil. TRUE

8) The amount of water in groundwater is much less than that in rivers and lakes. FALSE

9) How fast groundwater flows depends, in part, on the permeability of the sediment

through which it passes. TRUE

10) An unconfined aquifer is recharged rapidly, whereas a confined aquifer recharges slowly. TRUE

11) High stream velocity generally results in erosion and deposition of sediment. TRUE

12) The discharge of a stream is the volume of water that passes a given point in unit of time

(for example, 50 cubic meters per second). TRUE

13) A river terrace represents an abandoned river floodplain TRUE

14) Relative time refers to the time sequence in which events take place rather than the

number of years involved. TRUE

15) In an unconformity the contact represents a time gap in the geologic record.FALSE

MULTIPLE CHOICE

16) In order of decreasing size (largest listed first), sedimentary grain sizes include ___.

A. clay, sand, silt, and gravel

B. gravel, sand, clay, and silt

C. sand, gravel, silt, and clay

D. gravel, sand, silt, and clay

E. gravel, silt, sand, and clay

17) _____ is a coarse-grained sedimentary rock formed by the cementation of rounded

gravel.

A. Mega sandstone

B. Pebble rock

C. Boulder rock

D. Conglomerate

18) ______ are sedimentary rocks deposited by direct precipitation of minerals from water.

A. Hydro rocks

B. Clastic rocks

C. Chemical rocks

D. Aquatic rocks

E. Biologic rocks

19) Oil and natural gas originate from _____ in marine sediments.

A. peat

B. the earth’s interior

C. organic matter

D. coal

E. comet impacts

20) Uniformitarianism is succinctly summarized by which phrase?

A. The future is the key to the present.

B. The present is the key to the past.

C. The past is the key to the present.

D. The present is the key to the future.

21) Which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?

A. Igneous intrusions form horizontal layers

B. Metamorphic isograds are horizontal before deformation.

C. Sediments are deposited as horizontal layers.

D. Most igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks in the Earth’s crust form

horizontal layers.

22) The upper surface of the saturated zone (aquifer) is called the ___.

A. water table

B. hard pan

C. saturated lid

D. recharge zone

E. head level

23) ________ refers to the ability of a rock to transmit fluids.

A. Porosity

B. Hydraulic head

C. Viscosity

D. Permeability

E. Void

24) A(n) _______ is a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move

easily.

A. sediment

B. evaporite

C. caprock

D. aquifer

E. aquiclude

25) ___ is the percentage of a rock or sediment that consists of void space.

A. Density

B. Void index

C. Permeability

D. Porosity

E. Holiness

26) A(n) _____ is the rapid sliding of a mass of bedrock along an inclined surface of

weakness.

A. debris flow

B. rockslide

C. avalanche

D. rockfall

E. creep

27) Resistance to movement or deformation of soil is called ___.

A. solifluction

B. stiffness quotient

C. stress resistance

D. shear strength

E. rigidity

28) One way to prevent slope failure is to ___.

A. drain ground water from the slope

B. Re-grade the slope so that it is more gently inclined

C. pin the rock onto the slope with rock bolts or other devices

D. Retain or establish vegetation to protect the slope

E. All of the answers are correct.

29) A(n) ___ stream flows in a criss-crossing network of rivulets (subchannels) around

numerous sandbars.

A. braided

B. meandering

C. incised

D. channelized

E. rilled

30) As a flooding river spreads over a floodplain the water on the floodplain flows ______

the water in the channel.

A. faster than

B. as fast as

C. slower than

D. with greater turbulence than

E. with greater turbidity than

31) A cutoff meander may become a crescent-shaped ___.

A. Kettle Lake

B. Moraine Lake

C. Levee Lake

D. oxbow lake

E. Yazoo Lake

32) The Earth’s largest mass extinction (~250 Ma) coincides with _____ in Siberia.

A. a massive meteorite impact

B. massive volcanism

C. flooding of continental areas

D. expansion of glaciers

E. human-caused disease

MATCH EACH ROCK-TYPE WITH ITS APPROPRIATE DEPOSITIONAL

ENVIRONMENT (USE EACH LETTER ONLY ONCE).

33) limestone C

34) shale and chert D

35) sandstone with eolian A

36) delta deposits: interbedded sandstone, conglomerate, and shale B

USE THE FIGURE TO THE RIGHT TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING

TRUE/FALSE (A = true;, B= false) QUESTIONS:

37) This figure shows an example of clast imbrication.

38) Layer A implies that sand was moving from right to

left, and layer B implies that sand was moving fromFALSE

left to right.

39) These features are typical of both aeolian and river deposition. TRUE

PLEASE MATCH THE APPROPRIATE TYPE OF MASS-WASTING WITH ITS

SPEED IN THE TABLE BELOW.

SLOW MOVEMENT

FAST

MOVEMENT

40) earthflow/mudflowB

41) soil creepA

42) debris or rock avalancheC

shallow marine

RELATIVE TIME

Match the letters in the figure below with the appropriate type of unconformity.

43) angular unconformityA

44) nonconformityC

45) disconformityB

INTERPRET THE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OR GEOLOGIC EVENT

INDICATED BY THE LETTERS IN THE STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN.

46) beach sedimentary environment B

47) fluvial (river) sedimentary environment C

48) shallow-marine, warm-water depositional A

Environment

49) deep-sea sedimentary environmentD

50) In the figure to the right, how do you describe the overall sea-level change represented by this column of strata?

a) marine transgression

b) marine regression

c) marine transformation

d) one cannot tell from this section




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