Psycho-Educational Group Design: Enhancing Body Image and Self-Esteem
Name of Students
Institution of Affiliation
Introduction to Group Theory
Adolescents go through myriads of challenges with body image and self esteem being the lead challenges in their personal encounters in a socially-oriented stage. Working in groups has been proven to be a very effective approach in enhancing productivity and behavioural change in any group categories; be it at work or a group of teenagers. The application of group theory acts as a therapeutic approach to impacting change effectively using a participative concept and sharing of ideas among a group of people. The use of a therapeutic group process ensures that knowledge is impacted among participants and each one can use the experience of the other to enhance personal change (Barkley et al., 2000).
In addition, behavioural change counsellors are able to handle a large group of people and thus reducing the burnout in influencing change. It is an easier approach that helps members clarify changes while providing the necessary tools for counsellors and other professionals in helping the group members. However, it is good to note that different groups of participants require different approaches depending on individual participants and the aspects being addressed by the psycho-educational processes. As a results, myriads of basic leadership competencies are required in coming up with an effective psycho-educational program that is aimed to address a certain problems for a given group (Honey et al., 2002).
According to Barkley et al. (2000), the development of a task group aimed at addressing a certain problem affecting a group of people should be designed in a manner that promotes collaboration between the participants and the implementation professionals. It should also be based on the law of mutual respect and cooperation so that the objectives of the entire process can be achieved with at most efficiency and minimum cost. Task groups are created to impact change to a group of people being faced by myriads of issues that are common among them. It is meant to address conflicts by setting up activities that are geared towards impacting change.
According to Chen & Rybak (2004), when it comes to psycho-educational groups, they are designed to work with members who require intrinsic or cognitive motivation in a bid to impact behavioural change or impact a behavioural skill. It, therefore, does have a set of procedures that have to be followed so that effective implementation can be achieved. It is meant to fill in an information void that may be existing within a group of people in a specific area that if affecting them. A good grasp in the process of impacting change is the most important aspect for group leaders as well and supervised experience.
The professionals involved may possess therapeutic skills or not but they must be able to master processes involved, skills required, and interpersonal skills that will make members open up and give room for change. In psycho-educational group concepts, various aspects affecting different groups of people can be addressed. These may include; relationship management, domestic violence issues, how to overcome eating disorders, stress management, anger management, training of parentage effectiveness, and assertiveness training among other multiple issues (Honey et al., 2002).
Other group theory approaches include counselling groups and psychotherapy groups. When it comes to counselling groups, they are handled a little different from psycho-educational or psychotherapy groups. Counselling groups processes tend to make more emphasis on interactive processes to assist people facing transitional life problems. They are also effective in addressing issues related to relationships by helping participants resolve these usual interactive issues that affect them. The issues addressed in this case may range from education problems, career related, developmental concerns, social stresses, and personal issues affecting them. However, the main focus is usually on interpersonal processes that aim at promoting solutions to behaviour, feelings, and thoughts. It is also a highly interactive process that requires feedback and support methods for its effectiveness (Barkley et al., 2000).
The aim of counselling groups is to assist the participants in developing positive attitudes as well as interpersonal skills. In addition, behavioural change is highly emphasized, as well as assisting participants transfer the newly learned behaviours and skills and applies them in their daily life operations. Group members are also helped to develop inner strengths and growth meant to assist them deal and cope with stressing situations that face them, as they struggle to free themselves from the daily struggles that are inevitable. Counselling is thus an optimal group theory approach that has proven effective in addressing social relationship related aspects (Chen & Rybak, 2004).
Close to psycho-educational group, psychotherapy groups tend to address interpersonal problems and psychological issues affecting people. It is therefore, effectively applicable in mental and Emotional issues via restructuring the personality dimensions of participants. It uses historical data as the base for improving mental and emotional aspect by relying on interpersonal diagnosis, interpretations, and assessments. Others include Brief Group Therapies that are formed to address economic pressures affecting people, among other issues. It could also be applied in other groups such as psycho-educational processes (Barkley et al., 2000).
One major aspect in group tasks is consideration of multicultural aspects in the running of group related processed. These are considerations that must be made for both the trainers and the participants. These encompass beliefs, behaviours, sexual identity, age, religion, gender, socio-economic status, and values. The aspect that influences the behaviour of the participants and the trainers is culture. Based on structural theory, cultural awareness helps in the identification of sensitive aspects that can be attributed to participants, as well as the creation of a diversity-competent group counsellor (Chen & Rybak, 2004).
The application of group theory programs can apply to the following categories: Brief groups, task groups, psychotherapy groups, psycho-educational groups, and counselling groups. In this case, the application of psycho-educational group theory will prove effective in assisting a group of young girls, grade 5 and 8, in the community identified by the local school boards, who have been struggling with body image and self-esteem issues. This research study will major on designing a psycho-educational program that will be used to address body image and self-esteem issues facing teenage girl adolescents in the community which will utilize the Cognitive Behavioural theory in tackling the presenting problems.
Considering that teenagers are in a transition stage in a series of self-identity processes, they tend to be affected by multiple aspects. Some of them include peer pressure, self-conscious, low self-esteem, puberty, and body image. However, in this case, we look at self-esteem issues and body image as core aspects affecting a group of young girls who have been identified by the local school board. These girls have been struggling with these issues for some time and the school authorities have identified that it is only through a psycho-educational that the girls can be assisted in resolving their inner conflicts. The members to be subjected in this group task program are from grade 5 and 8 which requires special attention when dealing with them.
The Psycho-educational Team
In a bid to ensure that the program is a success, a number of aspects will have to be considered in coming up with a competitive team that can be able to handle a group of teenagers suffering from low self-esteem issues and body image struggles. Considering that counselling will be one of the prime strategies that will be used in impacting positive attitude and cognitive thinking in the group members, the personal values and qualities of the trainers have to be considered. The selected team must possess a high level of self awareness and self-reflection due to the fact that they are dealing with a sensitive group that may end up being more broken that fixed if care is not taken (Barkley et al., 2000).
As outlined earlier, this psycho-educational program will focus on the group member’s wellness in terms of improving their self-esteem and body image. The following are some of the imperative characteristics that will be entail the trainers that are going to handle this psycho-educational group; the trainers will:
When it comes to the psycho-educational group leaders, he or she will be in charge of ensuring that all the legal and ethical aspects in regards to the training program are in place. The team leader will also be tasked in ensuring that all the necessary facilities and resources are availed while assuring the participants of their safety and purpose for them being put through the group program (Bergami et al., 2000). The group leader will have to possess the following qualities:
- Have to be highly skilled in psychotherapy and emotional intelligence
- Have great interpersonal skills and positive influence on the group
- Be willing to identify with the group members
- Have respect for the participants
- Have the willingness to be vulnerable at times and the ability to working through the presenting conflicts
- Ability to cope with criticism; develop a nonaggressive way of expressing feelings and opinions to the group members
- Cultural awareness on the team members will assist in knowing how to handle each person and what to respect most about their beliefs
The entire team will be expected to showcase professionalism while at the same time impacting a close relationship with the group members so that they can relax and have the ease to open up on the issues that are affecting them. A psycho-educational program works through goodwill, care, and genuineness. When the principles of care, sincerity, trust, and valuing the opinion of others are impacted, the members will be able to open up and it will be easier for the trainers to identify the best approach to handle each individual case and that of the group collectively. Adherence and belief in the outlined psycho-educational process will also help the trainers cover all the outlined activities in time.
- Be a role model in the teaching and training program to other trainers and the group members
- Ensure that group norms are created and followed; these will include purpose, openness, respect for other people’s ideas and opinions, respect for other people’s cultures, holistic acceptance of all group members
- Facilitation of a program that promotes disclosure and honesty for ease in assisting the participants
- Have emotional intelligence, empathy, and compassion on assisting the members on the struggles they are going through
- Have high attention to details
This group will entail a group of seven young girls in 5th and 8th grades studying in a local school. It will be formed on the basis that this group of girls has been identified by the local school board in the community, as having undesirable behaviour fostered by low self-esteem and poor body image about themselves. The rational for forming this group is for the purposes of boosting their self-esteem and body image. It has been identified that the initiation of a psycho-educational program will be most effective in boosting positive thinking, self-confidence, and behavioural change among the participants.
The processes for pre-group preparation in this psycho-educational program will involve identifying the objectives of the program to be undertaken. Secondly, the cultural background and values for each of the participants will be evaluated. Moreover, it will also entail taking a keen evaluation on the qualifications of the selected trainers and their team leaders. The venue, program schedule, and necessary resources required to ensure that the program is a success will be evaluated. The team will also brief the school board and the participant’s parents on the objectives and purpose of the psycho-educational program and how it will be conducted. The expected challenges of the program will be evaluated and the best strategies to handle them as they come out in place (Bergami et al., 2000).
The common fears of the group participants will also be identified and evaluated, including confidentiality and cost of the program as the main worries. It will be the role of group leader and his team to anticipate the hidden agendas given the group’s future. The uncovering of hidden agendas during the start of the group will help the team have a successful group operation that will be able to meet all the objectives. The other aspect to be considered will include early conflict resolutions so that group cohesion may not be inhibited. It will be good to note conflicts can occur at any stage of the psycho-educational program but confronting them professionally and early enough will prevent their recurrence in the future (Honey et al., 2002).
It will also be expected that the trainers will do anything in their power to behave in a professional manner that will cultivate trust and collaboration among the participants and themselves. In a psycho-educational program, participation, openness, and honesty are paramount in identifying the core aspects that affect the participants so that trainers can prepare relevant program activities that will improve the behaviour, self-esteem, and body image of the participants. Trust enhancement will thus act as a boost to these aspects by sharing program expectations to the group members (Chen & Rybak, 2004). Once the participants trust the training team, they will develop a positive attitude towards the program and the desired change will be achieved in the end of this program.
Objectives of the psycho-educational program
This psycho-educational program will be highly supported by the local community and the school authorities to achieve the following objectives towards the teenage group in terms of assisting them deal with the self-esteem issues affecting them and body image struggles:
- Identify a professional team of psycho-educational personnel with high level skills to handle the group
- Make a thorough research on possible issues that may affect the trainers in delivering quality training to the group members
- Create a research orientation platform
- Outline ethical and legal issues and procedures in group counselling and membership
- Come with strategies that will help the members identify their intrinsic power and develop positive attitude
- Help the members in stress management and wellness creation in a group setting
- Improve the holistic self-esteem and body image for participants so that a desirable behavioural change can be achieved
- Outlining the purpose and objectives of this program to relevant stakeholders; parents, school board, local authorities, and the participants
- Outlining the safety of the participants in this program
- Outlining the cost that the entire program will incur and who will fund the program
- Making a clear outline on the qualification of the trainers and their experience in psycho-education programs
- Informing participants on their rights
- Assuring the members on confidentiality observance if they are to participate
- Theoretical orientation of the leadership
- In case of involuntary membership, the group leaders will have to show participants the benefits that will accrue from participating in this program
- Participants must be given the freedom to withdraw from the group if they wish to terminate the session at will or due to unavoidable circumstances
- Participants have fully attended at least 80% of the sessions
- Group members have developed a positive attitude towards life and in the process cultivating self-esteem and positive body image
- The trainers have conducted the program professionally
- Communication and feedback was adhered completely
- Ethical considerations were put to effect considering that the group is made of minors
- The application of the Cognitive behavioural theory would is done effectively
- The participants have developed a positive attitude, self-confidence , and behavioural change
The membership for this psycho-educational group is temporary and it is expected to last for a period of ten weeks with a twice-per-week attendance on Thursdays and Fridays. This was after noting that the busiest school days for the participants are Monday to Wednesday, and most are also available on the two outlined days. The participants have proven that the two days are reasonable and practical. Other considerations such as consent, ethical requirements, theoretical approaches to be used, objectives of the program, qualification of trainers, and process evaluation processes have been made.
Ethical and Legal Considerations in Psycho-educational Processes
Before embarking in the implementation of this program, the necessary moral, technical, and legal skills on each trainer will have to be evaluated. Moreover, the participants, considering that they are in the 5th and 8th grades, must get prior permission to participate from their parents and guardians and they must be of good health and in competitive state to go through with the program. Written documentation from the group members’ parents and guardian will have to be obtained so that the group can go through the program legally and safely (Bergami et al., 2000).
When it comes to ethical issues, a set of rules that will be used to govern the conduct of trainers so that they act professionally will be put in place. In regards to legal issues, minimum standards in regards to child participation in a program and the qualification of the trainers will have to be put to consideration. This program will go ahead to consider clinical issues pertaining to trainers and the participants. The trainer and the group members must be in good physical and mental health to engage in this program (Honey et al., 2002).
In consideration to cultural issues, it will be imperative to consider the trainer and group member’s values, religion, sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic background for the sake of identifying how to handle each of them. This program is meant to promote the welfare of the teenage girls and boost their body image and self-esteem issues. This will happen if respecting their cultural issues is enhanced and they will as a result cultivate trust with the trainers and soon open up for better strategizing on how to assist each of them (Bergami et al., 2000).
For the legality aspect of the group participation to be enhanced, basic information as to what is entailed in this psycho-educational program will have to be outlined to the parents, school board, and the participants (Barkley et al., 2000). The following aspects will be addressed for the purposes of informed consent:
This program will pay keen interest in ensuring that the above aspects are adhered to so that an efficient and safe program that will impact transformation on the participants is enhanced. It will also mitigate chances for any misuse of power by the trainers or the group leader. Moreover, group members will have higher level of openness bearing in mind that whatever they reveal as a personal experience will be kept confidential. Allowing freedom for voluntary participation and outlining the benefits of this psycho-educational program to the participants and other relevant stakeholders will help develop a positive attitude which is important in impacting behavioural change. The confidentiality for minors in this group will be based on the Child and Family Service Act to ensure that minors are not affected psychologically by any presented information.
Theory Structure to be Applied
The problems presented for this group include issues relating to body image and self-esteem. These are common problems that tend to affect teenagers as they try to discover themselves in transitioning period. It is a very delicate stage and if not handled carefully, these young girls may end up in an identity crisis. This group program will therefore focus on both psychological and behavioural transformations to be impacted on this group of teenagers. The group-based approach is much more effective as compared to client/therapist approach which is a one-on-one encounter.
The creation of this psycho-educational program will be to impact psychological and behavioural wellness on the group members. It will thus use the cognitive behavioural approaches in dealing with these presenting issues. This is because the cognitive behavioural theory presents diverse attributes that will be applicable in the entire group as they share their experiences and learn from each other on how to handle stress and psychological aspects in different scenarios. This means that using cognitive behavioural approach will entail first of all enhancing a collaborative relationship between the trainers and the group members. This will build up trust and openness which will impact positive transformation (Spielberger, 2013).
The use of this theoretical approach recognizes that in low self-esteem and self-consciousness on body image and changes, may lead to psychological distress and most of the disturbances that this group of teenagers are experiencing are cognitive. This means that focusing on the changing cognitions will be the most effective way in cultivating a positive attitude that will not only transform the behaviour of the group members, but also enable them to think more positively when faced with challenges and find the most effective solution from relevant sources. Cognitive behavioural theory will thus present a focused model that will be used in focusing on low self-esteem and body image problems as the core cognitive psychological aspects affecting the group of young girls.
According to Spielberger (2013), research has proven that cognitive behavioural approaches are most effective in psycho-educational models structures as this one. As a result, using the identified group session activities, cognitive behavioural approaches will prove effective in helping the group members learn new things that can help them modify their cognitive thinking, emotion control, and any problematic behaviour that they may have been forced to by the psychological conflicts they are experiencing. New learning will be a strong tool in impacting change on the participants and this will be achieved through collaborative group activities geared towards behavioural transformation and positive thinking cultivation.
This psycho-educational program has decided to use cognitive behavioural theory and approaches since it has a wide range of techniques that can be applied by the trainers in resolving cognitive problems affecting the group. It is also handy for the participants since they will be able to specify their goals and in the process develop skills that are needed in boosting self-esteem and body image perceptions. The psycho-educational program hopes to employ the following cognitive behavioural theories in handling the self-esteem and body image issues affecting the target group for general psychological and behavioural wellness promotion: behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavioural therapy, and reality therapy. These will form a broad spectrum to be used by trainers based on the individual presenting problems and then generalizing them on the group for possible future effects that they may have on the participants (Barkley et al., 2000).
In this cognitive approach, trainers will be expected to identify specific goals at the outset of therapeutic process. As the conduction of different group-based therapeutic activities go on, the trainers will be able to measure progress exhibited by the group members to gauge improvement levels. After goal setting, the trainers will be expected to set strategies that are going to be used to meet these goals (Chen & Rybak, 2004). To determine the effectiveness of these goal-achievement strategies, continuous evaluations will be done.
The aim of using behavioural therapy will be to increase personal choice for the group members in different challenging scenarios that face them. It will also create new conditions for learning how to cope with stress and peer pressure as the core contributor to behavioural change. Some of the activities that will be included in this therapeutic approach will include role playing, relaxation, mindfulness, and modelling among other practices that will entail group participation (Yalom & Leszcz, 2005).
Cognitive Therapy Theory
When it comes to the use of cognitive therapy as an alternative psycho-educational structural approach, it will major on the psychological part that is affecting the group members. Self-esteem is defined as the individual evaluation of their self-worth while body image entails the attitude they develop towards themselves in regards worrying about the perception that others have on them. These are cognitive mental process that develops either a positive or negative images on people on how they feel about themselves and may influence either good or bad behaviour as a reaction to what they feel about themselves.
Cognitive theory outlines that people have the tendency of learning self-defeating thoughts, but they also have an equal capability of unlearning them. As a result, the use of cognitive therapy will be to help the group members unlearn the self-defeating thoughts that have degraded their self-esteem so that the output will be self-confidence and improved behavioural change for better interpersonal relationships and coexistence with the society. It will focus on mental and psychological transformations in boosting self-esteem and creating a better self body-image belief about themselves. It is also a process of emotion control and focusing more on acting on issues rather than reacting to them (Townsend, 2013).
The trainers in this case will be expected to help the participants trigger the identification of their automatic thoughts and teach them how these thoughts can be managed by developing problem solving skills rather than being quick to express these feelings. The use of collaborative empiricism will thus be paramount so that participants can be assisted to form hypothesis and tests that test their beliefs and their validity on these beliefs. The process involved will help the group members change the way they think via identifying their automatic thoughts and working on them (Yalom & Leszcz, 2005).
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
The REBT will be a cognitive psycho-educational theoretical approach that will be used in the perceptions that the group members have on themselves, others, and varying life situations. It is an approach that will help the participants change their defeating thinking and in the process overturn the deterioration of behavioural and emotional disorders that may be causing low self-esteem and poor body image. This process will help the participants develop a new outlook on life and reduce the unhealthy emotional responses they may be possessing about their body image (Townsend, 2013). This will be achieved when trainers help the participants to examine their personal beliefs and behaviour in group-sharing sessions.
The other cognitive theoretical approaches that will be applied in conducting activities that will promote self-esteem and positive body image are reality and choice therapies. In reality therapy, the trainers will work under the assumption that human beings work by the motivation of change. However, this change occurs when they realize their current situation and behaviour that they would like to get out of. They therefore, develop the attitude to change from that behaviour and acquire a more desirable one. In the use of Choice theory, the assumption that humans are cognitively motivated and tend to behave to gain control of the world around them, will be effective in transforming the thinking of the participants. The theory will be used to teach them that no matter the situation they find themselves in, there will always be a choice, and it would be best if they made a choice that will impact positively on them (Honey et al., 2002).
Group Transition Stage
This psycho-educational program has taken to consideration the need for addressing group transition stages. After the group has been taken through a series of activities that will improve their cognitive thinking, behaviour, and mitigation of defeated thinking, a transition stage where the members will on a personal basis decide to welcome the change will reach. This will be a confusing phase full of anxiety, resistance, defensiveness, inter-member conflicts, and even defensiveness. It will be the role of the trainers to identify when a member has reached this stage and help them transit smoothly without feeling victimized or loss of self-worth to other peers. Some of these anxieties expected in this stage will be fear of; self disclosure, rejection, being exposed and vulnerable, single out, judged, and losing control of oneself among others (Chen & Rybak, 2004).
The transition stage will be a success once trust is fully established between the trainers and the group members in the psycho-educational program. The program leader will be expected to impact confidence in the participants that it is okay to transit from the old behaviour to a better behavioural choice and a confident outlook in life. The transition phase entails helping the participants move from the defensive and reluctant mode to a ‘risk’ that will boost their self-esteem and body image, while in the end impacting on their overall behaviour an outlook on life. Emotional connections will play as a boost to this confidence cultivation using a simple and direct talk meant to impact change (Spielberger, 2013).
Factors that will Play Key Roles in Constructive Changes
The aspect of self-disclosure by the members will form the fundamental in the success of this psycho-educational program. Once the members open up and share what they are going through, the factors that are causing low-self esteem and poor body image will be identified. During the working stage, frequent working on personal disclosure by the trainers will be a paramount aspect. The disclosures presented by members must be related to the purpose and goals of this psycho-social program and should be aimed at identifying the weakness points that affect each member so that the group process can assist them (Honey et al., 2002).
One way to enhance disclosure will be the facilitation of an open reaction by the group to the disclosed things and taming the reactions right there in respect to cognitive behavioural therapy approach. Helping members deal with open criticisms and opinions will strengthen their cognitive abilities to handle pressure. However, it will be the role of the trainers to facilitate the process so as to avoid victimization which may lead to further disclosure. Leaders will also be encouraged to disclose issues about themselves that aim at encouraging participants but not exposing their weaknesses. Most importantly, the leader will be expected to have resilience in submitting to group pressure. His or her role will be to facilitate, direct, guide, control, and evaluate the process that will aim at promoting better cognitive abilities and behavioural change (Chen & Rybak, 2004).
Group Participation and Feedback
The design of this psycho-educational program will involve promoting an effective feedback to enhance collaboration, teamwork, disclosure, and empowerment. Motivation for change has been highly associated with effective feedback between the trainers and the group members. Giving feedback on certain conflicting issues to participants will help them develop cognitive insights on issues and increase their willingness to take risks on behavioural change since they wield information that pertain to the anticipated change (Spielberger, 2013).
Group participation will also a good platform for assessors to evaluate the impact of one group session on self-esteem and body image. Any question asked must be treated with at most important irrespective of how petty it may look to some of the participants. This will make group members feel important and open up more to any issues that affect them or even ask for clarifications of certain outlined issues. Moreover, considering that the presenting problems are more of social and psychological, feedback enhancement will promote interpersonal skills that can help the members share problems and help each other in case one is faced by a challenge; this practice can be propagated to future pressure bearing behaviour (Honey et al., 2002).
Feedback and disclosure will be two aspects that will promote the success of the outlined psycho-educational program. These will empower the group and cultivate internal courage and strength. It will also be a platform that promotes cartharsis, which is the ability for group members to express their stored up pain and other feeling that have been unnecessarily ailing them and hurting them psychologically and emotionally. Based on these disclosures, trainers will be able to handle each case either as an individual or a group setting. Moreover, feedback will create member participation on the discussion of different issues and members educate each other in the process while others realize that someone else may be going through what they were going through (Chen & Rybak, 2004).
Group’s Final Stages
The completion of the group’s final stages is as crucial as its initiation stage. It is in this stage that members will be given an opportunity to clarify and integrate the meaning of their experiences in the participatory group sessions held. They will be asked to outline the decisions they have made in utilizing new life approaches that will enhance self-esteem and body image. It is at this stage that members of the group will be expected to have developed a close relationship with each other, and ending of the session may prove emotional. However, before this session comes in, it will be upon the program leader to set aside as much time as possible to evaluate the impact of the psycho-educational training that took place (Mills, 2015).
This will be done via group open contribution sessions where participants will outline what they think were the strengths of the program, weaknesses, challenges, advantages, and the opportunities it has brought in cognitively changing their orientation towards life, social interactions, and self-confidence. It will also entail personal filing of questionnaires with questions aimed at evaluating personal experiences for participants and their recommendations on what should be improved in future to make the program better. The evaluation will also see to it that trainers compile a report that expresses that ability of the members to translate what they have learned and apply in life setting. The leader of the program will be expected to assist members to put what they have learned to use (Mills, 2015).
Expectations and Recommendations
By the end of the psycho-educational training program, the following expectation will be made:
Any recommendations made by the participants and the trainers will be recorded and put to effect in future psycho-educational programs that may be applied to a similar group for the purposes of process improvement.
Barkley, R. A., Shelton, T. L., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barrett, S., … & Metevia, L. (2000). Multi-method psycho-educational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: Preliminary results at post-treatment. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(3), 319-332.
Bergami, M., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2000). Self‐categorization, affective commitment and group self‐esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39(4), 555-577.
Chen, M., & Rybak, C. (2004). Group leadership skills: Interpersonal process in group counseling and therapy. Toronto, Ont: Thomson Nelson. Appendix A (pp.383-385): Sample group proposal- Personal growth group for adolescents in sudden transition.
Honey, K. L., Bennett, P., & Morgan, M. (2002). A brief psycho‐educational group intervention for postnatal depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(4), 405-409.
Mills, B. M. (2015). Increasing adolescent self-esteem: a focus on wellness and process.
Spielberger, C. D. (Ed.). (2013). Anxiety and behavior. Academic Press.
Townsend, E. (2013). The Effectiveness of Group Counseling on the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Girls.
Yalom, I.D., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books
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