Components of a Research Study

Components of a Research Study

Team B

HCS/465

University of Phoenix Material

Questions to Prompt Critical Thinking

***Complete the following worksheet. Remember to delete the examples provided as you compose a response to each prompt.*** ( delete this line before submitting final assignment)

Components of a Research Study

Kellner, J. D., MacDonald, S., McDonald, S., McNeil, D. A., Mueller, M., Saini, V., & Tough, S.,

(2019). Maternal perceptions of childhood vaccination: explanations of reasons for and

against vaccination. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 49.

https://doi-org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/10.1186/s12889-018-6338-0

Research Steps

Define the problem.

With more and more parents choosing not to vaccinate their children, there is a need to understand the reasons why this statistic is on the rise. Parental perspectives have a direct effect on whether the parents of a child decide for or against vaccination or delayed vaccination.

What is the problem that the article or study is trying to resolve?

Example: Ebola has spread among the West African people because of… This research seeks to identify solutions that will prevent it from spreading among the African people.

Why is the problem important for health care administrators to study?

The research article may not identify a specific reason the research is important to health care administrators. That is okay. Write about why a health care administrator would want to study this topic. How could knowledge of this topic help you as a health care administrator?

Example: As an assistant manager of a nursing home, I know that many of the residents have watched the news reports on the Ebola outbreak in Africa and its potential outbreak in the United States. Because I know little about the disease and knowing the concern that the reporting of this disease has brought on the residents of the nursing home, I felt that it was my responsibility to know more about the disease and how to prevent its spread. Providing the residents with this knowledge can go a long way toward calming their fears and enabling them and their caregivers to take measures to prevent any outbreak.

Identify the purpose.

What is the purpose of the study?

What is the author trying to accomplish in this paper?

If the answers to these questions are not expressly stated in the article, consider its entirety and then write what you think the answers are.

Example: The purpose of the study was to create awareness of the Ebola outbreak, to provide statistical data to give an accurate account of the scope of the outbreak, and to identify known methods to minimize exposure, recognize symptoms, and prevent outbreaks.

What are the study variables?

What are the independent and dependent study variables?

Independent variables represent ‘inputs’ and can have any value.

Dependent variables represent ‘outputs’ or ‘effects.’

Example: The study collected data that observed changes in the number of people becoming infected by the Ebola virus by varying amounts of education/awareness being facilitated by the American Red Cross. The amount of education/awareness given by the American Red Cross is the independent variable while the number of people who were or were not infected after public awareness efforts is the dependent variable.

Identify the research question and/or hypothesis.

Was a research question or hypothesis provided in the article? If so, what? If not, why?

The research question for the study in this article is: How do mothers explain their

decision to vaccinate, not vaccinate, or not fully vaccinate their children? (Kellner,

MacDonald, McDonald, McNeil, Mueller, Saini, & Tough, 2019).

What was the answer to the research question? Was the hypothesis accepted or rejected?

Based on the study, the answer to the research question is that a mother (or father’s)

choice to vaccinate their children is a personal decision that is complex and impacted by

many factors, including the mother or father’s perspectives and/or preconceived notions

regarding vaccinations. The results of the study in the article showed that there is a need

to examine new approaches to addressing the feelings of pressure that a parent may feel

when choosing to vaccinate their children or not. Some parents are influenced by their

personal beliefs and experiences, while others are more deliberate in their decision and

make the choice to vaccinate or not vaccinate based on risk, their own research, and

weighing the risks to the benefits (Kellner, MacDonald, McDonald, McNeil, Mueller,

Saini, & Tough, 2019).

Research Methodology, Design, and Analyses

Example: The research used quantitative data collected by the American Red Cross, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Data collection occurred over a five-year period with help from six West African governments. The data tracked 100 residents from each country and monitored the spread of the disease among the citizens. Data analyses analyzed disease prevalence for decreases. Depending on Ebola prevalence, the research question can be answered. If Ebola prevalence decreased after implementing the CDC protocol, the hypothesis would be rejected.

  • Was the research qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods? Explain.
  • What population or sample was studied?
  • What was the sampling method and type?
  • How long did the study take?
  • How was the data collected?
  • What type of statistical analysis was used?
    • The research used qualitative data such as parental responses from the survey responses taken from mothers with children under 24 months old and using 1560 total open-ended questions.

    Findings

    What were the findings?

    Vaccinations decisions are impacted by various factors including research, effectiveness, personal and family perspectives, and external experiences. Because the decision to vaccinated was based on perspective, the study indicates the need for new interventions and campaign approaches in order to see an increase in choices to vaccinate.

    Were the research questions or hypotheses addressed?

    The research question that was addressed within the study was: How do mothers explain

    their decision to vaccinate, not vaccinate, or not fully vaccinate their children? As

    expected, there are contrasting views on vaccinations. Some parents explained that they

    made the choice to vaccinate (or not vaccinate) their children based on the influence of

    their personal, cultural, or familial beliefs. On the other hand, other parents made their

    choice based on research that they had done on their own or based on the research of

    others that concluded that vaccines were unnecessary. Lastly, the fear and/or risk of a

    possible link between autism or other diseases plays a role in some parents’ choice to

    vaccinate or not (Kellner, MacDonald, McDonald, McNeil, Mueller, Saini, & Tough,

    2019).

    Conclusion

    What were the recommendations?

    Are the findings relevant to consumers or health care professionals or both?

    How could you as a health care administrator use the information within this article?

    The findings of the study show that there are many mixed reviews on vaccinations which

    have a direct effect on a parent’s decision to vaccinate their children or not. As health care

    administrators, we can use the information within this article to devise strategies on how

    to educate parents on the facts, benefits, and risks that are associated with vaccinating

    their children. If we can provide as many parents as possible with unbiased facts from

    credible sources, parents may be able to feel more secure about their decision to

    vaccinate their child or not. Opinions or personal beliefs may still outweigh the facts

    regarding vaccinations, but either way, it is still our responsibility as health care

    administrators to do our part in educating parents on the subject so that they can make

    informed decisions (Kellner, MacDonald, McDonald, McNeil, Mueller, Saini, & Tough,

    2019).

    References

    Kellner, J. D., MacDonald, S., McDonald, S., McNeil, D. A., Mueller, M., Saini, V., & Tough, S.,

    (2019). Maternal perceptions of childhood vaccination: explanations of reasons for and

    against vaccination. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 49. https://doi-

    org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/10.1186/s12889-018-6338-0.