Historical significance of various identifications
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)
This was a case ruled by the high court in 1954. The case was relevant in fighting racial discrimination among the public schools. The act was solidly ruled as unconstitutional and unacceptable in the state. The case acts as one of the foundations of the civil rights movements that were started to fight for separate but equal services to humanity including education. This law of separate and unequal services was against sharing of similar facilities between the whites and the black Americans (Dudziak, 2011). The issue of baby dolls also emerge where many dolls were white and more expensive compared to the black dolls which were kept in store rooms.
This stands for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It is an organization that was developed in 1909 in the United States. It is a bi-racial organization that was developed to ensure that justice is administered to the African Americans. The organization aims at ensuring there is equality on political, educational, social and economic rights of all people. The organization has different regional offices that are responsible in coordinating its activities.
Civil Rights Act (1964)
This law was developed to curb human discrimination based on color, gender, religion, race or nationality. The law prevents unequal application of voting requirements, discrimination in schools, employment vacancies and any form of inequality.
War on poverty
This welfare expansion program was introduced in 1960s by the U. S president Lyndon Johnston in the aim of reducing poverty. The programs that were developed were like providing vocational training, providing early education to the poor families. They identified the causes of poverty as lack of education and training, poor health care and poor living conditions. Additionally, there were development of programs like offering lunch to the students in school, providing Medicare to the community to boost health services, the government set aside finances to ensure poverty eradication where in 1960,$25B was spent on poverty while in 1970 $60B was spent which equates to $250 to be spent on every person.
It is a broadcasting platform. Explorer 1 1958 was the first satellite to be sent to space. NASA is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration that is responsible for ensuring space research and aeronautics.
It is a political scandal that occurred in space around 1970s. The scandal was connected with President Richard where his followers were involved in wiretapping phones and stealing documents during his campaign. The scandal led to positive change in the U.S politics where citizens became more concerned with their presidents’ character. Woodword & Brunsteen started to examine the incidence where Nixon failed to turn over Congress files for prosecution.
Gulf of Tonkin
This resolution was aimed at approving the determination of the president to take necessary measures to prevent armed attack against the US forces. The Yalta Conference (1945) was aimed at shaping a post war peace of the people from Nazi Euro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
This is a leaders crisis of the U.S together with the Soviet Union participated in a 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 where they discussed in the need for armed Soviet missiles on Cuba.
SALT means the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks which involved conferences and international agreements on the issue of arms. SALT II entails the agreement which was dealing with the limitation of acquiring arms. Carter was committed in following all the required guidelines (Dudziak, 2011). Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union to eliminate use of arms.
This revolution was as a result of continued mass protest movement known as the American civil rights movement which was against the mass social and political segregation resulting to much discrimination on exercising civil rights by the marginalized citizens. The aim was to establish federal justice and the end of racial oppression among individuals, aiming to end political war among the states. The nation was faced by racial political challenges a result of racial segregation, curtailed voting rights and other oppression practices which were against the majority will following a strict reinforcement to adhere on established law: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude (Amendment 15 United States Ratified February 2, 1870).
The revolution was led by American revolutionists from Selma, to Montgomery accompanied by a match of American rebels advocating for practice of democracy. The main objective of the movement was to sensitize citizens on their civil rights and calling upon mass resistance and constitutional review to amend some of the clauses and provide for equality among citizens. The approach resulted to much oppression to revolution activists including John Lewis the SNCC chairman who they termed as the future American congressman and the assassination of Malcolm X on February 21 just before he reached Selma. This action was preceded by Watts Riots of 1965 which was characterized by violent conflicts by Los Angeles police and citizens of Watts and neighboring states where police used excessive force resulting to loss of 34 lives of the freedom fighters that fought for racial seclusion and neglecting act by the government (Hall, 2005). This revolution anticipated for Voting Rights Act to rule out barriers that restricted black Americans from enjoying their voting rights, aiming to bring racial equality to all people a pressure that forced Lyndon Baines Johnson by then the president of America to address the state about his willingness to advocate for the end of racial discrimination to African Americans calling for the Supreme Court to enact laws to allow the blacks the right to vote.
The desire for judicial justice pushed most of the Americans to seeking fairness, racial and constitutional reforms. Brown verses Board of Education of Topeka case on Supreme Court seeking for recognition of black people in America to enjoy civil rights like any other citizen of the state. This was a great land mark on the journey to realizing constitutional justice to all people. The Supreme Court urged that the previous provisions of having a separate school for the blacks was unconstitutional and discriminated the black people stating that ‘separate educational facilities are inherently unequal’. This ruling contradicted the decision of Plessey versus Ferguson of 1896 allowing state segregation allowing equal protection, and integration which marked the major achievement of the civil rights movement which fought for discrimination aiming to marginalized citizens.
In conclusion, Reforms by James Farmer on congress of racial equality (1942) to improve on racial interactions and demand to ending discriminatory actions by the government played a great role to realization of racial freedom on Africans Americans. Demand for fairness in electoral rights and the brown versus board of education decision are aimed to bringing to an end the act of segregation and discrimination for blacks allowing them to freely participate and interact with the other Americas without the fear of being oppressed and being neglected (Pettigrew, 2004). The provisions marked a new revolution in the state encouraging legal citizenships and adapting to a rule of law that governs every individual. Despite that many lives were claimed to attaining the freedom rulings it remains the landmark of American Judicial independence though a big threat lies on ‘white flight’.
Pettigrew, T. F. (2004). Justice deferred a half century after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist, 59(6), 521.
Hall, J. D. (2005). The long civil rights movement and the political uses of the past. The Journal of American History, 91(4), 1233-1263.
Dudziak, M. L. (2011). Cold War civil rights: Race and the image of American democracy. Princeton University Press.
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