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Question 2, part 1

The 12th century was characterized by many changes and the kick off of the high middle ages, among the changes recorded included; social, economic and political changes. Apart from these, there was a very significant intellectual and cultural developments which steered later development. On the other hand, Italian renaissance took place around 14thcentury up to 17th century. It marked the transition from middle ages towards modernity. Italian renaissance took place just after the 12th century renaissance (Dyer et al, 1-13). Below are some comparisons of the significant intellectual and cultural developments between these two renaissances.

First in both renaissances there was an aspect of intellectual development. The 12th century renaissance experienced scholarly development such that a new method of learning popularly known as scholastism emerged from the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle and other medieval great scholars. The great scholars of the time who practiced scholasticism defended roman catholic doctrines (13). On the other hand, in the Italian renaissance intellectual development concerning scholarly works ware marked by the development of philosophy and literature. The Aristolean and Ptolemaic views of the universe were venerated. There was development of the humanism views which stressed that an animate spiritual creation that was governed not by not by laws nor mathematics.

Still in the aspect of intellectual development. There was great development in the field of science in both renaissances. In the 12th century renaissance major scientific advancements were experienced hence the name scientific revolution came to existence. The medieval universities and scientific research center such Constantinople as provided a base for experimentation and trial of scientific inventions. Major scientists included john philoponus. Whereas in the Italian renaissance science was practiced greatly than in the 12th century. In fact, the science practiced in the Italian renaissance is referred as the father of modern science. Italian universities such as bologna, Padua ad Pisa were scientific centers. Major scientific figures included Galileo, Descartes, Francis Bacon and Copernicus.

Secondly in the cultural development, the 12th century renaissance experienced great works of art and literature. In art poetry was revived and many poems written in native languages. There was a classification of poems either secular of religious poems. There was opposition to pagan literature. Turning an eye in the Italian renaissance cultural development was associated with massive development in literature and poetry and paintings, in such a way that Italian writers started writing in Italian language apart from Latin as usually. Much of the focus was to translatethe studying classical works of Latin and Greek, the literature was largely influenced by philosophy and science. Portraits of Jesus and the saints were painted, Italian Renaissance painters used advanced techniques to give their art a sense of life with life-like. One of the most significant artists was Giotto di Bondone who’s was nick named farther of father of western painters.

Section two, question 3.

Roman papacy was the most influential organization in the European medieval times. Papacy became the dominating force in European politics and religious activities. The decline of roman empire gave the papacy the advantage to rise to power steadily. However, the papacy did not thrive long enough, the papal supremacy started to decline as the roman empire shifted its center of power to the east from Rome. Constantinople in the east was now the new capital of the empire. Rome was abandoned and since it was the seat of the papal, it was attacked by barbarian enemies and fall to its despair (Evans &Eric, 2018). During those weary days the bishop of Constantinople was given equal status as the bishop of Rome. Henceforth differences of both doctrine and practice gradually evolved between the two spheres of influence. 

In the 11th century there was a wave of reforms in the papacy that seek to effect changes in a way that ecclesial authority was enhanced. the series of reforms included the stamping out simony which was a practice of buying church offices, again there was enforcing of celibacy to the priests in the parish.

Works cited

Dyer, Christopher, and Dawn M. Hadley. “Introduction.” The Archaeology of the 11th Century. Routledge, 2017. 1-13.

Evans, Eric J. The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, 1783-c. 1870. Routledge, 2018.

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