Human Geography

Human Geography

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Human Geography

The word ‘Nation’ has some legitimate weight in it to mean that the aspects of time, unity, culture and territory have to be cohesively integrated to make a nation. This is to mean that a nation refers to a group of people having a common history and living together from a history that is common, speaking a universal language though there may be sub-tribes, same cultural-political aspects and having some territorial jurisdiction. Examples of nations include; the American nation, European nations, the Dutch republic and the African nations. All these have specific cultures, ethnicity and historical backgrounds that uniquely define the people who live there accompanied by territorial demarcations (Attard, 1987).

The word ‘Nation-State’ is a little different from the word nation and it is more geographically oriented than culture oriented. This is to say that a ‘nation-state’ can be defined as a geopolitical area governed by a group of people who may or may not have a common ethnicity but have come together to take control of a geographical territory and hence to govern the state national policies have to be created. Examples of such nation-states include; Bangladesh composed of mostly the Bengali people and Bihari migrants, Armenia composed of mostly Armenians. Others include Egypt, Estonia and Lebanon (Attard, 1987).

On the other hand, we have ‘separatism’ which refers to the urge and will or advocacy for an existing state to branch itself from an existing state based on racial, gender, ethnic, cultural, tribal or religious reasons and it may also be a government-enforced separation. Examples may include Southern Sudan in African separating from northern Sudan and Canada separating from the rest of North American states (Thorndale & Dollarhide, 1987).

Consequent political boundary can be defined as that boundary line of a state that has coincidence as a result of a divide in culture such as religion and language for example the German speaking central Europe. The superimposed political boundary on the other hand refers to that boundary line set up while ignoring a set of defined patterns in cultures for example the Maya civilization. Functional boundary dispute refers to incoherent agreement on how a boundary works between two or more political or ethnic groups such as the one between El Salvador and Honduras as a result of colonial boundary position dispute. When it comes to resource boundary dispute, this arises as a result of two states sharing a common resource such as that of India and Bangladesh in the 70’s because India wanted to divert the Ganges to the Hooghly river.

Falklands Islands war also well known as the Falklands crisis was a territorial crisis or territory invasion that took place between United Kingdom and Argentina in 1982 for ten weeks. Argentine government had sovereign claims over the islands but the British had already occupied them and as a result there was a big naval-war between the two that led to the surrender of the Argentines. An exclusive economic zone refers to a sea zone whereby special rights are awarded to states under the United Nations law of the sea convection to explore and exploit the marine resources including production of energy. Brown colonialism can be referred to as the imposition of political rule by the brown people on others other than by the whites. It was believed to be replacing the white colonialism especially in the Asian countries such as India. Ethnocide refers to an intentional cultural destruction in an ethnic setting by destroying the people’s way of life. For example the ISIL-group in Iraq has been destroying artifacts in an iconoclasm idolatry cleansing (Thorndale & Dollarhide, 1987).

PART TWO

The Russians invaded Crimea and took it from Ukraine for a number of reasons such as; they believed that Ukraine owned Crimea contrary to the Soviet law and repossessing it was righting a political wrong. According to Putin, Ukraine had no Legitimate authority and it endangered the Russians living in Ukraine and Russian was in a better position to protect them and also Crimea was in a strategic position with a lot of economic value owned ‘rightfully’ by Russia. In this case we see that Ukraine and Russia were a common nation since they share the same cultural values, language and ethnicity but they do not form a state since Ukraine is under the political rule of Kiev while Russia is under Russia and their political interests conflict as a result of resources-dispute or boundary disputes. The outcome of this conflict will most likely lead to war since the Russian government does not care about any sanctions imposed to it and it remains adamant that Crimea is hers while Ukraine is not willing to let go (Millar, 2004).

Geopolitical Forces influencing morocco

A number of forces such as the raw materials have influenced political uproar in Morocco hence the need for political regionalism to share the resources equally. The resources include salt, zinc, manganese, phosphates, iron and so on. There has been constant rebellion and fronts in the country calling for separation from the Moroccan government unless the resources were shared equally among all provinces. The regionalism has influence geopolitics as a result of un-equitable distribution of natural resources and the government seeks solutions to make the force in Morocco a single regional geopolitical unified force (Zoubir, 1999).

Reasons why Vikings become peaceful

The Vikings were believed to be ferocious and savagely insane in raiding and raping women as well as killing the Christians at the time but as time went on they slowly became assimilated to the church and a period of peace between the church and the Vikings emerged. They were turned from savage killers to farmers and traders, they worshipped many gods and it was easy to accommodate a new Christian god too. The rise of kingship also consolidated them to a rule of law that saw them reduce their savage acts and follow a single leader. Trade also converted them to peaceful people as most of the Europe had turned to trading and they were forced to join the group. These are the same factors that help united countries and foster peace. When it comes to religion, many countries get united under one religion such as the Muslim states, Roman Catholics and so on. When it comes to trade, counties need to cooperate with each other to have a fair trade and coexist (Jones, 1930).

REFERENCES

Brown, B. A. (1976). Separatism.

Attard, D. J. (1987). The exclusive economic zone in international law.

Thorndale, W., & Dollarhide, W. (1987). Map guide to the U.S federal censuses, 1720-1920.

Millar, J. R. (2004). Encyclopedia of Russian history.

Zoubir, Y. H. (1999). North Africa in Transition: State, Society, and economic transformation in the 1990s.

Jones, G. (1930). A history of the Vikings.