Human Sexuality

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Contraceptives

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Contraception

Contraception can be defined as the deliberate use of methods that are artificial or any other technique to prevent getting pregnant that results from sexual intercourse. There are many forms of artificial contraception, but the most common ones are the barrier methods, where the most common method is the use of condom; there is the contraceptive pill, which is meant to prevent ovulation in the female due to the synthetic sex hormones that are contained in the pills, intrauterine devices, e.g. the coil, which is meant to prevent the ovum that is fertilized from implanting in the uterus and many more contraceptive measures, as discussed below

Natural Family Planning- This method is used by couples to help them determine when engaging in sex can/cannot lead to pregnancy. This method is based on the fact that a woman’s body undergo some changes during the menstrual. Couples can therefore plan on when to have an intercourse, as well as when to avoid sex, depending on whether the couple wants a pregnancy or not. This method does not need any kind of prescription, but it helps a lot if the couple gets training from a specialized doctor, and if they follow the instructions given. Statistics indicate that more couples are leaning towards this method, owing to its effectiveness. One of the advantages is that it is a very easy method. The fact that it is acceptable to all cultures and faith also increased its popularity. Because it does not involve any chemicals, it also has no side effects. However, it is not that effective according to research, since it is noted that one in four women using this method will conceive. It is also not convenient because one has to keep records of their menstrual cycle.

Condoms- the use of condoms are also what are known as barrier methods (“family planning,” 2011). This includes the use of both the Male and female condoms. The reason why this contraception method is used is because they stop the sperm a female egg from meeting. A male condom is made of a very thin rubber or polyurethane, and is designed to fit over the man’s erect penis, while the female condom is of polyurethane material. It is inserted in the vagina, to loosely line it. Statistics show that condoms are widely used by every age set that engages in sex. It is advantageous because it also prevents other sexually transmitted diseases. They are as well suitable on unplanned sex. On the other hand, condoms may tear or spill, therefore not seen as sure. Some people also claim that condoms tend to interfere with the sex experience.

Pills- The contraceptive pill is a pill taken daily, that contains the hormones that changes how the body works, including prevent pregnancy. The Hormones are typically chemical substances which control how the organs function, and Spall (2013) suggests that knowing your bodies will lead to greater pill effectiveness. Some of the advantages associated with these pills is reliability and reversibility. However, they have been criticized for having negative side effects on it users. And they are relatively expensive, compared to other contraceptives.

Intrauterine device- The IUD is a T-shaped device which is inserted into a woman’s uterus, and releases copper ions meant to kill the sperm. The coil basically works by stopping the sperm from reaching the ovaries, therefore stopping the egg (fertilized) from implanting in the woman’s uterus. Its advantages includes offering a long term birth control solutions, and the fact that it does not interrupt sex. This method has been criticized for its multiple side effects, and vaginal pains to some women. Vaginal bleeding is also common in women fitted with IUD.

Vaginal ring- This is a soft ring inserted in the vagina for 3-4 weeks. The ring releases progestogen and oestrogen, which prevents ovulation from taking place, and subsequently preventing the implantation of a sperm in the egg. Statistics show the growing popularity of this method, because it is easy to use. It does not interrupt sex, and one does not have to think about it every time they have sex, because it is worn for three weeks. It may however be uncomfortable to some ladies to insert the ring into their vagina, and may have negative side effects.

In the wake of birth control, many methods of preventing pregnancy have been invented. All the methods have their own pros and cons. It all depends on the individual, and the couple, on what contraceptive best suits them.

References

Family planning: A global handbook for providers : Evidence-based guidance developed

through worldwide collaboration. (2011). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, INFO Project ;.

Spall, H. (2013). Sweetening the pill or how we got hooked on hormonal birth control.

Winchester, UK: Zero Books.




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