HY 2000 Unit I Assessment

Summarize the British victories from 1758 to 1760 that gave victory to Great Britain over the French in North America. In your answer, be sure to address the following questions: What major military figures were involved in these conflicts? What strategies were used by the colonial army, and what impact did this victory have on the American colonies? Your response must be a minimum of 500 words.
Selected Answer: The British victories that occurred from 1758 to 1760 fueled the achievement of victory by Great Britain over France in North America. These victories impacted both European and American history. The battle for North America was linked to the Seven Years’ War that was fought from 1756 to 1763. Prior to the victories that began in 1758, William Pitt had risen in power within the British ranks, and had started to guide the British navy blockade the French ports to prevent the departure on troops and supplies, this resulting in Canada’s resources to be stretched thin. Being the dominant power within North America was the source of the tension between these two powers. Pitt had decided that his sights were falling on Ticonderoga and Crown Point, Louisbourg, Fort Duquesne, and Quebec. Jeffrey Amherst had led troops to victory at Louisbourg, Abercomby had failed at Ticonderoga; however, England had penetrated the perimeter of defenses in the west and east. By 1759, the British troops became victorious, on the fronts of Niagara, Ticonderoga, and Crown Point, allowing access to Montreal and Quebec. Louis-Joseph de Montcalm of the French, held with 3000 men in Quebec against an army of 8500 British lead by James Wolfe, had originally regained control of the city through several British attempts, until the British on the Plains of Abraham were able to overtake the French troops, the French army was able to escape. Montcalm had tried to take his troops and attempt to regain Quebec control however, in 1760 the French had failed in their attempts. With French troops accumulated in Montreal, the British troops comprising of forces from Quebec, Lake Ontario and Crown Point were able to push the Canadian governor into a surrender. Although the battles on land in North America between the French and the British were completed with the surrender in Montreal, the battles continued between these two nations on the sea, involving the locations of Europe, West Indies and Asia until 1763. The strategies that were used by the colonial armies were a concentrated attack that had mixed results prior to William Pitt coming into power of the troops, the approach that seemed to have the impact that were leading to such victories over the French were the masses of troops resulting in overpowering manpower and resources that outnumbered French troops to be defeated. The effects on the colonies through these years of war were vast. The relationships amongst redcoats, colonials, and Indians became strained through their separation of societal status. Redcoats had believed that colonial troops were without merits, that they were not disciplined and lacked common knowledge of sanitation and sickness. The uncertainty of colony militia numbers for commitment of men were a straining factor to these relationships as well, due to the vast offensives bringing the militia men far from their homes. The British officers seeing themselves as a superior cast to the colony militia men continued the conflicts in regards to issues such as recruitment, quarters, transportation, and provisions. The need for Redcoats to be supplied resources such as quarters during the winter months, which resulted in them staying in private houses, the need for food and other resources, often had a major impact on the colonies in their day to day sense of survival. These constant issues and others that continued to separate the colonies from the British Redcoat officers and troops were a preluding cast onto the years to follow that resulted in the colonial wars in the beginning of the Revolution that began in 1763.ReferenceMillet, A.R., Maslowski, P., & Feis, W.B. (2012). For the common defense: a military history of the United States from 1607 to 2012 (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press. 

Question 2

47 out of 50 points

  Select and respond to one of the following questions: Why were the colonials successful in King Phillip’s War? Briefly summarize the conflict, and explain the combat strategy the colonials used. In your answer, be sure to identify the major figures and events related to the subject. OR Briefly summarize Bacon’s Rebellion, and identify the major figures involved in this conflict. What impact did Bacon’s Rebellion have on European/Native American relations in Virginia? OR Discuss British/colonial operations against New France during Queen Anne’s War. Elaborate on how both parties, Britain and the colonials, viewed the fate of Walker’s expedition. Your response must be a minimum of 500 words.      
  Selected Answer: King Phillip’s War began in 1675 and was named after the Chief of the Wampanoag Indians, Metacomet, who the English referred to him as Philip as a symbol of esteem and friendship. Metacomet was the son of Massasoit who had signed a peace treaty with the English in 1621 until he died approximately 40 years later. Metacomet didn’t however, appreciate seeing his people repeatedly subjected to English rule and domination and was rumored to have tried to form an Indian confederation in efforts to launch a coordinated attack on the English. The war began before these conspiracies could form. In 1675 in the late spring, members of the Wampanoag tribe looted and burned some abandoned buildings in the frontier community. This act was construed to the English as an act of war and when the Plymouth colonists retaliated and the Wampanoag tribe defended themselves, King Philip’s War began. The Wampanoag tribe joined by the Nipmuck Indian tribe warriors fought together in the battle to instill fear in the English. The English were specifically fearful of the Narragansetts tribe to join the battle because they were known to be the most powerful tribe in the area. In an effort to prevent this from happening, the colonists launched a preemptive strike. The English struck against the Narragansetts tribe to ensure that they were unable to join forces with the Wampanoag, and Nipmuck Indians. Within King Phillips War this strike was called, the Great Swamp Fight of December 19, 1675. Narragansett families were taking residence through the winter in a secret village in the Rhode Island great swamp, during the morning an army of 1100 men, commanded by Josiah Winslow, who was the governor of the Plymouth Colony, were lead to this secret fortified village by a Narragansett defector. The English battled with the Narragansett but resorted to fighting with fire that lead them to have the upper hand, as it destroyed clothing, supplies, food, and housing, forcing the Narragansett tribe to flee into the swamp and suffer death from a lack of resources. Prior to this battle the colonies were used to decades of friendly relationships with the Indians, causing them to be skeptical to join in the battle against them. However, when the war had begun, the colonists had started to view the Indian people as a uniformed suspicious relationship, and in fear of prior issues, they had joined together. The combat strategy that ultimately ended King Philip’s War was in the spring of 1676, when William Turner and Benjamin Church lead 150 men to an Indian camp killing hundreds of them, and also destroying ammunition, and forges that the Indians used to repair firearms. The Indians had tried to launch a counter attack, however the damage that was done to the Indian resources and people were too vast.The most significant strategy and person within the war was that of Turner and Church, he had adapted the strategy to fight the Indians by fighting like the Indians, and emulating their guerrilla tactics, with stealth and precision. To do this they had convinced a small Sakonnet tribe to abandon Philip’s side and were able to use them as a strength into his plan, enabling them to capture Philip’s wife and child, while also having someone within the Wampanoag turn traitor to his tribe and kill Philip which marked the end of this war and resistance. ReferenceMillet, A.R., Maslowski, P., & Feis, W.B. (2012). For the common defense: a military history of the United States from 1607 to 2012 (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.       

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