Importance of Criminal Justice in US
Institution of Affiliation
In accordance with the laws of United States of America, probation and parole have been considered to privilege which allow criminals to avoid prison life. Some of the convicted criminals are released from their respective prisons after serving a portion of their required sentences. It should be understood that the major purpose of probation and parole is to rehabilitate offenders and providing comprehensive guidance on manner to interact with their society. The main aim is to reduce or mitigate the possibilities of individuals committing similar crimes in future. Under the law, the judge pursuing the case may grant probation as an alternative measure instead of imposing jail sentences to respective criminals presented. Moreover, the determination of the case to consider probation as a corrective method depending on seriousness of the offense committed and under which circumstance the offense took place. Members who are granted these options are considered to pose no threat to the society involved (Durnescu & McNeill, 2014).
In most cases, the victims are allowed to interact freely with the members of the society in condition that they are able to abide within the expected code of conducts and laws of the land. Generally, the conditions of probationers may include the provision of directions on requirements of the program after being proven to be corporative by undergoing respective tests and measures instigated by their judge. Furthermore, the parole is granted to victims in conditions that they have served a comprehensive portion of their prison sentence. This draws the major difference between the probation and parole according to the laws of the land. In this reference, the percentage of prison sentence served to the victims must be served and individuals portray the willingness to reform under the stipulated measures and conditions. Some of the terms that are presented to the victims include making regular meetings with government officials and submitting regular drug tests to ascertain their sobriety to interact with respective communities. In the event, the parolees violate the expected terms and conditions their parole will be revoked and therefore facing re-imprisonment under the terms of the law (Schmalleger, 2012).
The paper will discuss and evaluate the importance of historical knowledge of probation and parole, policies and practices that have shaped today’s probation and parole systems, the importance of probation and parole in the United States criminal justice systems, the impacts of probation and parole in the modern communities and the purpose of today’s probation and parole in the country.
The Importance of Historical Knowledge of Probation and Parole
The origin of the practice that has been practiced in the United States can be traced to criminal laws of the land back in the middle ages of human evolution. During the period, the punishments that were imposed on adults and children in the country were considered to be harsher in nature and humiliating to mankind. Some of the punishments that were imposed on the victims included flogging, branding, mutilation and execution that were considered to violate human rights. This level of harshness was considered to cause some levels of discontent among the citizens calling for devoted individuals to advocate for criminal justice in entire systems of the country. The effort was focused to mitigate these inhumane punishments with the ability to advocate for alternative methods to punish the offenders in the country. During this period, the royal pardon was purchased by the victims thus calling for activists to advocate for lenient measures to punish the offenders (Payne et.al, 2016).
In order to change the entire systems in the country, individuals with minor offenses faced lenient judgments and later returned to their communities for close monitoring and supervision by respective parents and guardians in accordance to the terms of the law. Through the exercise, the individuals who demonstrated a promise of rehabilitation were placed in the generous hands of individuals who were willing to take good care of the victims in order to reform their previous habits and practices. Under the supervision, individuals and family members were allowed to make regular visits to victims with officers entitled with the responsibility of monitoring their progress in order to determine their ability to interact with their society (Ulmer et.al, 2018).
Policies and Practices that have Shaped Today’s Probation and Parole Systems
Parole and probation have been considered by the majority of members in the America society as an alternative method of incarceration. The members who are eligible to this practice were those considered or deemed to pose minimal threats to the public and entire safety of the society. Therefore, the approach was stipulated to end stint punishments experienced in various prisons in the country with aim of achieving criminal justice. However, the approach has faced several challenges as the system is faced with comprehensive underfunding and lacks proper management in entire system in accordance to latest report compiled by Pew center for the state in America. These effects have led to more parole violators facing re-imprisoning thus accounting for the high number of individuals being jailed in the country. The approach is considered as a major set -back as the country strive to reduce the number of prisoners in jails currently (Hanser, 2014).
Community corrections should be considered as an activity that should be performed by all agents of the government in order to assist the offenders to interact constructively in their community. The process may involve monitoring of the victim behavior with major purpose of protecting the entire community from criminal activities as being experienced currently. To enhance the process the communities and societies should be willing to meet monetary costs that are currently being experienced in the country without burdening the common taxpayers in respective states. These would mitigate the concept that the role of probation and parole in the country cannot be achieved in the country in reference to modern notion among citizens. The concept behind the practice is to prove that minor offenders are equally important in their community and they can reform to change the face of the country. However, the move can be achieved if thorough supervision mechanisms are stipulated and emphasized by law officials in the involved (Greenwald, 2017).
The Importance of Probation and Parole in the US Criminal Justice System
Currently, the country prisons are experiencing overpopulation and increased levels of cost across all states in accordance with the latest world report. The probation and parole methods will therefore, be adequate to achieve criminal justice system in the country that will go a long way to improve the national image. To enhance the mechanisms the probation officers have been considered to be significant in reducing the current levels of recidivism rate with an aim of promoting community safety. Apparently, officers who are professionals in different fields are tasked with the responsibility of assessing and determining the level of risks offenders pose to their community. To enhance their effort they must be able to identify the fundamental needs of the victims so as to ensure the process of reintegration remains successful (Durnescu & McNeill, 2014).
Despite, the practice of probation and parole remaining effective, some evidence indicates that other correctional sanctions such as electronic monitoring and shock probation have not reduced recidivism in the country. Therefore, to change the behavior of individuals’ options such as halfway houses and daily reporting to legal offices will be effective in changing the behaviors demonstrated by different offenders. Considerably, the criminal activities in any country have contributed to cripple the development of respective nations and promoting low levels of investors venturing into different regions of the world.
Durnescu, I., & McNeill, F. (2014). Understanding penal practice.
Greenwald, R. C. (2017). Birth control use among women on probation living in southern New Mexico and the U.S.-Mexico border region.
Hanser, R. D. (2014). Community Corrections.
In Ulmer, J. T., In Bradley-Engen, M. S., & American Society of Criminology. (2018). Handbook on punishment decisions: Locations of disparity.
Payne, B. K., Oliver, W. M., & Marion, N. E. (2016). Introduction to criminal justice: A balanced approach. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminal justice: A brief introduction. Boston: Prentice Hall.
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