Instruments Used In Data Collection – Method and Design

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Method and Design

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Method and Design


Data collection is a systematic way of gathering and measuring information from different sources to come up with a complete and accurate results in an area of interest. In the event of this process, various instruments are used which help in gathering information. There are various methods of data collection which vary depending on the nature of the research. Therefore, the choice of the instrument or tool to be used entirely depends on the variables, sources and the availability of resources. On the research on cyber and school bullying, the method of data collection used is the questionnaire. This method was chosen on the basis of the nature of research, to come up with factual findings it was important to get information from immediate sources which were made possible through the use of questionnaire forms. However, this paper discusses in detail the type of method used in data collection and the validity and reliability of the instrument selected (Olsen, 2011).

A questionnaire is a form that requires the respondent to fill out the form and it can be given directly to the respondent or sent via email and later collected by the researcher. A questionnaire can take two forms; that is a structured question or open-ended question where the respondent has the freedom to reply widely. However, many researchers embrace the structured questionnaire to save on time and space and also to be precise in the research. In our case here, we opted for the structured questionnaire where the questionnaires were designed to touch on several aspects of individual’s life (Willem E. Saris, 2007). Questionnaires can be used on the entire population or sampled sectors. Our research adopted this method on sampled sectors where there was the use of cluster sampling and stratified sampling. With cluster sampling, the questionnaire was used to identify subjects among the selected schools. This technique allows for the spread of sample diversity about the social, economic and demographic background of the respondents. On the other hand, stratified sampling was used to administer questionnaires covered the individual schools to get the classes, by the population’s education type.

In addition to this, the questionnaires used in the research used a common language that was relevant to the target group. The study narrowed down to parameters which included internet behavior and experiences, such as cyber bullying, social, demographic and environmental factors, characteristics of the individual and parental intervention thus making the questionnaires simple and clear to the respondents.

Validity and reliability of the method used

Validity refers to the extent to which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure. The validity of an instrument to be used in data collection all depends on with the objectives of the research. Reliability refers to the extent to which the instrument gives the accurate measurement or results which the researcher desire to get at the end of the study. The following measure is going to be taken to ensure validity and reliability of the instrument (Louis Cohen, 2013). First, the questionnaires are going to be designed in such a way that they are easy to understand that is simple and clear. Thus they are going to be completed by respondents within a short time. Second, the questionnaire is going to be administered to the target group or area of interest. This will ensure that the information is obtained from the right source hence validity and reliability of the instrument. The questionnaires are also going to be administered to the participants in a free of bias manner.

In conclusion, the instrument used for data collection on the study on cyber and school bullying is the most appropriate for the study. From the above discussion, a questionnaire will provide the best results since it will be able to cover some parameters in a precise manner. Questionnaires are also time and money saving Hence the best method to use for the research.


Louis Cohen, L. M. (2013). Research Methods in Education. Routledge.

Olsen, W. (2011). Data Collection: Key Debates and Methods in Social Research. SAGE Publications.

Willem E. Saris, I. N. ( 2007). Design, Evaluation, and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Research. John Wiley & Sons.

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