interior of earth

Properties of earth inner core

The inner core is considered the final layer of the earth. The estimated thickness of the inner core is about 1250km thus becoming the second smallest layer that composes the earth. Study provides evidence that it is the hottest layer of the earth. The inner core is composed of two elements that make the entire properties inner core which include nickel and iron. The solid inner core is not fully understood and the temperature ranges from 5000 – 6000 degrees Celsius.

Inner core structure contains iron as composition property and smaller fraction of lighter elements. The exact amount of iron depends on temperature corrections. Therefore, elements such as oxygen cannot be constrained in this layer. Nickel is another property found in the inner core of the earth. Nickel structure is an element responsible for crystalline structure of the earth. Levels of temperature and pressure are contained by the existence of this element in the earth (Phillips, 2012). 

Outer core

This is the outer layer of the earth surface and a lie about 2,300km which is relatively thick to about 1,400mi, further, the layer is composed with mostly the iron and nickel elements. Outer core lies above the mantle and hence forming the earth boundary. The layer forms the magnetic field of the earth with magma like liquid surrounding the layer. Liquid found at this region is of high temperatures and in other planets is found at the center (Rudnick, 2005).


Lower mantle and upper mantle

Is the solid in earth composition and found at the interior between the dense earth and heated core surface of the outer layer, Upper mantle forms indefinite shape in the earth and is the top most layer of the earth. Distance and thickness of the layer is about 200 – 250 miles. Together with the crust the layer forms lithosphere. This is the fluid rock called the asthenosphere. These enable the movement of tectonic plates.

The lower mantle determines the landscape of the earth. The movement of materials in this region is responsible for the formation of volcanoes and spreading of earthquakes. The mantle extends up to 410 miles beneath the earth surface. Region is considered less ductile as compared to upper mantle and corresponds to soft rocks due to intense pressure (Phillips, 2012). 


Oceanic and continental crust

Continental crust is the layer of igneous rocks that are responsible for the formation of the continents and the areas of shallow regions. The variance of the continental crust is between 6 – 47 miles in depending on where it’s found. The rocks at these regions are considered to be the first to be formed. Further, the oceanic crust is found under the oceans about 5 miles deep. The magma shots up through these gap during the volcanic activities (Rudnick, 2005).


Processes associated with plate boundaries

The process involves where the diverging magma are moving away from each other based on mechanical properties of the earth. Plates are rigid and non- rigid in nature and the processes usually take places on the edges. The processes involved include; creation of heat within the convection currents and tends to force their way up to the earth surface. Later lithosphere begins to crack as the brittle fractures. These results to diverging current pulling the lithosphere in different direction thus injecting magma through the cracks and solidifies to create oceanic crust (Wolf et al, 2012).


Earthquakes results from land movement and in most cases they cause damages to fauna and flora. The waves tend to propagate in a strained manner and spread out from the area of disturbance of the ground. Tectonic plates are responsible for the movement due to molten rock materials. Waves that cause the earthquake include the compressional waves and transverse waves that pass through the core of the earth (Phillips, 2012). 


Volcanism and rock deformation

Volcanism is assessed as spatial density of volcanic system and reflects the probability of volcanic activity occurring in particular areas. The knowledge enables one to understand the chances of the activity taking place and the magnitude of effects that the earth movement will entirely cause during this period. Rock deformation reflects the effects of the strain rate of the earth movement and development. The rate of interplate during volcanic activities and magnitude tends to be lower than that of the earth. Volcanic eruption is exposed to erosion and destruction of atmosphere as compared to rock deformation (Rudnick, 2005).


Phillips, J. M. (2012). The Earth’s core: Structure, properties and dynamics. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Rudnick, R. L. (2005). The crust.

Wolf, D., Santoyo, M. A., & Fernandez, J. (2012). Deformation and gravity change: Indicators of isostasy, tectonics, volcanism and climate change, volume 3.