Introduction to HR Management and HR Strategic Planning

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Lesson 1: Introduction to HR Management and HR Strategic Planning

Discussion Question 2

Over the last 40 years, federal legislation has redefined personnel management in

U. S. organizations. Discuss the following:

a. Describe the effect of the following legislations on organizations: Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

b. Show how these changes are “good business,” that is, how they benefit the organizations and not just the employees within those organizations.

Part A

The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 defends both job applicants and employees. The act was modified in 1972; it states that an employer cannot discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The act covers nearly everyone and ensures it is unlawful for employers of labor with the minimum of (15) fifteen employees either in the public or private sectors to discriminate when employing, retaining, or laying off. The law also instituted the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which is a bipartisan commission made up of five members appointed only by the president. This commission enforces Title VII and other laws that protect us against employment discrimination. The effects of the following legislations on organizations are as follows:

An employer cannot make employment decisions based on applicant’s color, religion, sex, race, or national origin. An employer cannot discriminate or differentiate based on these factors when signing up job applicants, advertising for a job or testing applicants.

An employer cannot harass you because of your race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

An employer cannot use an employee’s race, color, sex, religion or national origin to conclude on his or her pay, retirement plans, fringe benefits, or disability leave.

An employer cannot make a decision whether or not to promote or sack any based on the employee’s color, race, religion, sex or national origin. He or she cannot use this information when grading or delegating workers.

Prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 been passed, an employer could decline a job applicant due to his or her race, sex, religion, or national origin. An employer could even turn down an employee for a promotion, decide not to offer him or her a specific assignment or in some other way discriminate against the employee simply because he or she was Muslim or Christian, black or white, Jewish, a man or a woman, Italian, German or Swedish. And such was legal.

Despite the advancements in equal job opportunity for a number of disenfranchised groups, one group that still suffers both job and economic discrimination is the disabled. Disabled people in the workforce have an unemployment rate that is almost double those of the nondisabled. Two-thirds of disabled Americans between sixteen and sixty-four are jobless, whereas 66 percent of those would like to work. Disabled workers with thirteen or more years of education receive only 71 percent of the earnings of equally educated nondisabled workers. Those with less than twelve years of education earn lesser than one-third the earnings of equally educated nondisabled workers.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 is a civil rights law that forbids discrimination against persons with disabilities in all quarters of public life including schools, transportation, jobs, and all public and private sectors which are open to the populace. The Act prohibits employers with fifteen (15) or more employees from discriminating against qualified and skilled persons with disabilities. Such practices include discrimination with respect to applications, hiring, release, payment, advancement, training, and much. Under EEOC-ADA guidelines, “mental impairment” includes “any mental or psychological disorder, such as…mental or emotional illness.” Examples also include personality disorders, anxiety and major depression. The provisions of the ADA deal with architectural, transportation, and communication ease of access have changed the face of American people in various distinct ways, boosting the independence, inclusion, full participation, and equality of opportunities for disabilities in America. ADA now report having a greater right to use of goods and services from businesses, state and local governments, and their immediate communities. People with mobility impairments have also experienced these significant developments in physical right of access to transportation, businesses and government agencies. Just like workers, people with disabilities are positioned to receive accommodations and less likely to be laid off as a result of their disabilities. What is more is that, there are abilities in every disability.

Part B

The Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) have smoothen the process to end discrimination in the workplace, a moderate total of discrimination still are observable in some organizations. Meanwhile, organizations can protect themselves by put into operation a diversity programs in the event that it goes out of control, workers occasionally fight back by filing lawsuits against the employer or personnel in charge. This is one major rationale behind the popularity of diversity training programs in the past decade.

The term diversity can entails a number of dimensions, like ethnicity, race, age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and disability. Persons with disabilities, with the inclusion of minority individuals with disabilities, have the ability to make positive and constructive contributions in their place of work and to the success of organizations. Managing diversity is making the most of maximizing diversity potential advantages while minimizing the possible barriers such as prejudices and those which undermine the function-ability of diverse workforce. Diversity payback includes measurable profitability and growth where it is proactively managed. Nowadays, diversity initiatives are less “affirmative action”-oriented in that they now mirror both valuing diversity and managing diversity. Valuing diversity includes spotting and appreciating the values of the differences of individuals. Managing diversity accentuates developing company policies, vision, goals, and a culture which brings out best in employees, by way of understanding their distinctiveness (needs, motivations, and contributions).


Kohl, J. P., and Greenlaw, P. S. (1992). The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: Implications for Managers, Magazine. Retrieved from disabilities-act-of-implications-for-managers/

Lectures note. (2019). MR601 PP Chapter 2. Slide 6 & 17

Lytle, T. (2014). VII Changed the Face of the American Workplace. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forced dramatic shifts in employment practices. Fifty years later, the journey toward equality continues. Retrieved from

Mckay, D.R. (2018). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Preventing Employment Discrimination. Retrieved from

National Council on Disability. (n.d). The Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act: Assessing the Progress toward Achieving the Goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved from

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