IOT application for smart homes is rare but it is starting to be embraced by many people who can afford the smart solutions. According to Stojkoska & Trivodaliev (2017), the concept of smart metering is used to transform homes, residential houses, and offices into an energy-wave environment. The IOT paradigm of smart grid concept is employed in smart home solutions. Modern homes today are equipped with smart meters, smart power outlets and appliances that enable development of energy aware smart phones that use sensing devices. Future expectations show that smart items will be dominant in the market and they will become omnipresent in the household.
- IOT application
- smart home
- smart health care
- smart grids and smart metering
- industrial IOT
- Healthcare Service Industry
- Fire fighting industry
- retail business
- Statistical Prediction
- Relation analysis
- Agro-industrial and environmental fields
- Air, soil, and water, Plant monitoring
- Environmental monitoring
- Air Quality
- Smart Cities
- Structural heath of Buildings
- Noise Monitoring
- Monitoring and Controlling traffic Congestion
- Smart Lighting
- Residential E-meters
IOT applications will be incontestable ideas in the future. All houses will be equipped with household equipments with interfaces for wireless communication so that a home (WSN) can be made. A central unit station where the data is transmitted which acts as a home-sink (Alaa et al. 2017). The home hub is usable with any device including smart phones, tablet, meter, or PC. This means that the use of IOT in development of smart homes is becoming popular and many people are starting to embrace the role of IOT in making of efficient home-to-work communication (Zhou et al. 2016).
In the transportation sector, IOT plays a crucial role as physical objects get equipped with RFID sensors, bar codes, and transportation logistics. The future of transportation is promising as passenger monitoring, ticketing, and checking on quality status of goods being transported is enhanced (Da Xu et al. 2014). Tracking a vehicle and monitoring its activities has become simplified through IT applications. The application has been extended to smart parking and auto-drive for some vehicles with capability of detecting possible objects ahead or at the during reverse (Shrouf et al. 2014).
The health sector forms one platform where IOT application is widely used in promoting and monitoring human health. According to Yuehong et al. (2016), IOT has enhanced smart medical rehabilitation by promoting efficiency and cost reduction strategies and communication in the health sector by promoting smart communication. It is being used to alleviate the shortage of resources being faced in the health sector due to increased aging population. Monitoring devices in healthcare widely use wireless technology in their integration with healthcare services.
Basically, IOT uses a smart healthcare system consists of smart sensors a remote server and a set of either wired or wireless networks in information gathering, interpretation, transport, reception, and feedback. Its application may be at home, community, or even a healthcare facility (Nandyala & Kim, 2016). According to Yuehong et al. (2016), some of the smart healthcare devices include withings, Nike+ fuel-bands, and other assertive devices. For example, a Withing is a device with a wireless body scale using a Wi-Fi interface. It is used in the estimation of percentage body muscle mass, fat, and index body-mass. A Wi-Fi is used to transmit the data to the company’s database. On the other hand Nandyala & Kim, (2016), outlines that Nike+ fuelband tends to be an IOT utilizing activity tracker which is usually worn around the wrist to detect and monitor the amount of calories used by the body during a physical exercise. It uses online protocols to transmit the information to the relevant recipient for health monitoring purposes.
According to Yu & Xue, (2016), smart grids are defined as electric networks capable of communication, control, and monitoring via the use of electric network technologies in delivering reliable and secure energy supply. The technology ensures that these grids enhance operation efficiency for distributors and generators of energy as well as enabling consumers to have flexible choices in energy consumption. In addition, Smart Grids (SGs) are have IOT applications that ensure efficiency in sustainable energy generation and supply.
Bedi et al. (2018) outlines that SGs have thus become the new IOT-enabled energy supply paradigms for economical and environmentally sustainable use. The embedding of computing technologies to a multidisciplinary physically aware next generation engineering systems has led to the development of IOT cyber-physical systems (CPSs). In addition, Yu & Xue, (2016) asserts that IOT represents a vast network of power systems in the SG environment. It creates a greater integration of internet and specialized secure communication that promote energy security and efficiency in collection, storage, distribution, and usage.
According to Shahid et al. (2018), the concept of smart metering comes in with the use of IOT-enabled residential E meters which are able to detect fraud and regulate and monitor energy consumption.IOT systems have enabled a secure communication and fraud detection system in the use of smart grid communication in energy conservation measures employed. Bedi et al. (2018) outlines that Intelligent electric power networks employ IOT in efficient mix of fuel for power generation. Electric power generation has thus become digitalized under IOT system thus enabling electric Power T&D networks to link with operators.
the industrial use of IOT has provided a promising opportunity in building of powerful applications and industrial systems by use of sensor devices, mobile networks, wireless networks, RFID, and other wide range of IOT applications. Machine to machine communication has been enabled through IOT systems and such identification and tracking technologies that enable industrial process management and tracking. IOT is thus applied in different industrial settings such as:
IOT provides sensing, communication, and identification capacities highly utilized in the healthcare service industry. For example, IOT has become widely applied in monitoring of a patient’s heartbeat. Secondly, the collection of healthcare information related to medication, recovery, finance, and daily activity are all managed via IOT (Da Xu et al. 2014).
The fire fighting sections in different states have resulted to the application of IOT in fire detection as well as providing an early warning. RFID bar codes are being attacked on fire fighting equipments so that product information can be released to the database in real time. A fire automatic alarming system has been developed in order to fight fires and teach the team prompt response.
A lot of research has been done on IOT application in the agricultural sector to meet the demands and supply of agricultural products. According to Lee et al. (2013), there is poor control of demand and supply of agricultural products today and this call for the intervention of IOT systems in improving the area. IOT has been used to ensure prediction of supply and demand, enhancement of real-time management, and maintaining the quality of Agricultural systems and products. As Talavera et al. (2017) puts it, methods of harvest forecasting have been devised via IT technology used in IOT-based agricultural production system. Nandyala & Kim (2016), outlines that there are three main parts that the IOT agricultural system has been designed to engage and they include; statistical prediction, relation analysis, and IOT service. IOT system has thus been used as a prediction tool in promoting healthy agricultural production. It has enabled short time reliable data collection and a real-time reporting of crop and environmental conditions.
IOT agricultural system has become a crucial tool in promoting short term and long term supply demand conditions in agriculture through the analysis of internal and external environments. The data collected is compared to the National Statistical Office’s data base (Lee et al. 2013).
The IOT relation analysis system is a prerequisite technology used in analytical correlations of agricultural crop selection and location conditions. It has a text mining technology that analyzes correlations in agriculture related texts on crop locations, selection, and conditions for monitoring purposes (Talavera et al. 2017). Schematization of a series of information on crops has been enabled by IOT agriculture production system being used to make decisions on crop selection, shipment period, sowing areas, planting period, and seeding (Leet et al. 2013).
According to Talavera et al. (2017), IOT applications have been widely embraced in agro-industrial and environmental fields for continued monitoring and control. The wide usage of IOT has opened new opportunities in agricultural predictions and machine learning algorithms. The ease of agricultural decision making, policy making and agriculture management has been enhanced. IOT can be used in the evaluation of different agricultural variables such as soil state, biomass variety, vibrations, temperature, and atmospheric conditions among multiple other uses. Some of the IOT monitoring domains in Agriculture include:
The monitoring applications of IOT in agriculture are put in a wide scope of uses that include air, soil, water, and plant monitoring. Lee et al (2013) puts it, when it comes to air monitoring sub domain, IOT works actively in real time monitoring system for microclimate air monitoring using humidity sensors that are powered by solar panels and supported by Zigbee communication technology. Talavera et al. (2017), goes on to outline that GEMs is the other IOT solution for air monitoring which utilizes GPRS technology in communicating the changes.
On the other hand, soil monitoring sub domain uses IOT technology in monitoring farm-land air moisture using WSN. The communication technologies used in this monitoring system include GPRS, internet and ZigBee. All interactions in this IOT system for agriculture are handled by a web application (Leet et al. 2013). When it comes to water monitoring, the temperature, pH and chemicals in water are all sensed in IOT system. IOT technology is thus relied on in measuring water quality aspects such as turbidity, temperature, mineral concentration, and conductivity. WSN architecture is used in monitoring water levels and rainfall in irrigation systems (Talavera et al. 2017). Other uses include fertilizer and pesticide control, illumination control, and access control in agricultural products among multiple other uses.
Another application of IOT in environmental waste management; Modern cities view the problem of waste management critically and IOT has been utilized to reduce costs of waste control. ICT solutions have been incorporated in this domain to ensure economic and ecological advantages for the sake of promoting public health. One IOT application is the use of waste intelligent containers that are used to detect the level of load. It goes ahead to allow for an optimization of collector route as a way of reducing the costs incurred during waste collection the quality of recycling is also improved through quality recycling (Shahid et al. 2018).
Greenhouse urban gas emissions are very high and pose a threat to global warming and human safety. The European Union call for 20% urban carbon emission reduction is being optimized by the use of IOT technology (Al-Fuqaha et al. 2015). IOT has been used to monitor the quality of air in crowded areas such as parks and fitness trails. Air and pollution sensors are being deployed across the city and the sensor data made publicly available for people in the city to assist them avoid areas with poor air quality.
The application of IOT in smart cities is quite wide as a digital communication paradigm whereby objects used in everyday life have been equipped with microcontrollers and transceivers. A wide interaction with such devices as actuators, surveillance cameras, vehicles, displays, home appliances, and monitoring sensors among many others has made IOT become the main thing in smart city applications. According to Zanella et al. (2014) the use of IOT in smart applications has extended to home automation, mobile healthcare, industrial automation, traffic management, automotive control, and elderly assistance among multiple other uses.
According to Shahid et al. (2018), IT has created a heterogeneous application of IOT that identifies solutions to satisfy requirements of all possible formations, scenarios, and challenges facing humankind. According to Hui et al. (2017), the IOT smart city concept entails a strong push for adopting ICT solutions to problems facing people living in urban centres as well as managing public affairs. The aim is to increase quality of services offered to citizens while ensuring that a reduction in administrative costs is achieved as a way of better utility of public resources. The deployment of urban IOT comes in handy to salvage the problems facing urban centres.
In order to ensure the proper maintenance of historical city buildings, IOT has been directly applied in continuous monitoring of the conditions of the buildings. Urban IOT provides a distributed database of building structural integrity measurements. This is done by the use of vibration and deformation sensors located in the buildings to collect information on conditions of the buildings (Zanella et al. 2014). The sensors are able to monitor the building stress, atmospheric conditions, and pollution levels around the building. Vibration sensors detect seismic vibrations caused by earthquakes to give study details on the impacts of the earth quake conditions on these old and historic buildings for safety purposes (Hui et al. 2017).
According to Arasteh et al. (2016) urban and city centres are the hub of noise pollution, however, urban IOT is being employed to help city managers control noise pollution in the city at specific hours. Urban IOT can offer noise monitoring services and in the process build a space map on areas that has above average noise levels at any given hour. To be able to achieve this, noise detectors and environmental microphones are being installed in various parts of the city.
Traffic congestion is a nuisance in most cities around the world. Urban IOT can enable smart city traffic congestion control. Installing sensing capabilities on GPS installed on vehicles and installing air and acoustic sensors along the roads is a sure way to keep track and control of urban traffic congestion (Hui et al. 2017).
According to Zanella et al. (2014), street lighting efficiency is of at most importance for city managers and city dwellers. Urban IOT optimizes the use of street lighting efficiency based on time of the day, weather conditions and people present. According to Zanella et al. (2014), the sensors on streetlights detect darkness or shadows to allow the lights to go on or off depending on the time of the day. The sensors also detect fault on the street lights and transmits the information to the control centre for rectification.
The problem of electricity consumption in the urban centres continues to loom at residential sector. However as Arasteh et al. (2016), outlines, there is need to replace the mechanical and analog energy meters and replace them with IOT enabled digital energy meters, that is, smart e-meters. They have been known to have secure communication and fraud detection and thus acting as cost saving gadgets in energy consumption for both the company and residential consumers.
12. social application
In a social setting, IOT is becoming a new revolution in the IT domain. It has enabled the interaction and interconnection of various things in the world. Such aspects as cloud computing, SCM, data mining, and data visualization. Human to human conectivity has been made possible through mobile phones, RFID, and actuators among others. Basic communications such as executive order, channel subscription, and push messages have been enabled as part of social application (Miorandi et al. 2012).
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