IT 283 Unit 1 Assignment

Unit 1 Assignment

IT283 Networking with TCP/IP

Part 1:

Name Brief History Responsibilities Website
Internet Society (ISOC) Started in the early 90’s by people involved with IETF. It was incorporated as a non-profit organization Provide a landing page for and financial support for other internet standards groups as well as raise funds for research. www.isoc.org
Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Created by Vint Cerf for advising on technical things. Became part of ISOC in 1992 and continued advising. Oversight for architecture of protocols and procedures. Editorial oversight of RFC documents. www.iab.org
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Originally created 01.1986 for government funded researchers to get together, the meetings were opened up in 1986 for anyone to come. Drafting, testing, proposing, proposing and maintaining official RFCs. www.ietf.org
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) Parallel organization to IETF. Created I 1989 as a research group which is further splintered into working groups who have their own tasks. Research and development for far-future implementation on the internet. http://irtf.org/
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Created in California in 1998 as a non-profit organization as a way of privatizing the internet and keeping track of a number of things related to the internet. Manage DNS, Network accesses, protocol parameters and behaviors. www.icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html

TCP/IP protocol services are services that can be configured at the different layers of the TCP/IP model. Many of these services are things that people are familiar with. They allow the user to interface with the internet. The services and protocols are numbered using protocol numbers to make it easier to identify and implement them on a network. These services operate on port numbers, which are numbers that are reserved for those protocols to send traffic across the internet. Many of the services that people are most familiar with are HTTP, which operates on port 80, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (basic e-mail) operates on port 25, and the Internet Message Access Protocol that uses port 143. Daemons are background processes that waits for information from the user to do something so the traffic can route to the proper port. Multiple applications running at the same time require multiplexing and demultiplexing protocols that combine or distribute the data streams to their proper applications. Sockets are ports that are linked together for use by the session that allows for a permanent tunnel during the session.

  1. Describe TCP/IP
  2. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is a suite of protocols used to allow one computer to connect to another and send information (such as emails, pictures, and videos) back and forth between each other. The Internet Protocol identifies the computer or host itself, while the Transmission Control Protocol routes the traffic. TCP/IP was developed in the early 1970’s by a section of the Department of Defense “known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (Arpa) (Carrell, 20120905).” TCP/IP is referred to as a protocol suite because it is a collection of protocols that work together to get the job done. That job being the communication of computers across a network. Involved in this protocol suite are several standards that are used across the board. These are known and Request For Comments (RFCs). These RFCs can be replaced after a time by proposing a few standard, and having it tested. If it is adopted, it is given a new number, and the lower numbered RFC is retired.
  3. Five Standards Organizations
  4. Briefly define TCP/IP protocol services, daemons, protocol numbers, port numbers, and sockets. Explain the use of these for multiple applications.
Subnet 1 2 3 4
Network 192.168.1.0/26 192.168.1.64/26 192.168.1.128/26 192.168.1.192/26
Host Address start 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.193
Host Address end 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.254

Part II:

  1. Compare the seven layers of the OSI Model to the four layers of TCP/IP
  2. The OSI model is a theoretical model used to show how data is packaged and sent across the network to another computer. On one point, it goes from the application layer, down through the other layers, across the network, where it then travels up from the physical layer to the application layer and back, depending on the type of data and the requirements of the request. The TCP/IP model was a model created to work in an actual working environment and shows a more simplified version of how the data is packaged and moves through the network. It is “not meant as a general description of all network communications, so it doesn’t cover all the functions the OSI model does (Burke, 2019).” These two models are similar enough and can largely be compared to each other. In the TCP/IP model, the application layer combines the application, presentation, and session layers. Transport and Network layers are the same across each model. The data link and physical layers are combined into the physical layer in the TCP/IP model.
  3. Subnet the private IP address of 192.168.1.0, subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Successful installation of Wireshark:

Filtering for TCP packet with details on a TCP packet:

Wireshark capture of Microsoft.com with HTTP GET request:

References:

Burke, J. (2019, July). What is the difference between TCP/IP model vs. OSI model? Retrieved October 22, 2019, from https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/answer/What-is-the-difference-between-OSI-model-and-TCP-IP-other-than-the-number-of-layers.

Carrell, J. L., Chappell, L., Tittel, E. (20120905). Guide to TCP/IP, 4th Edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from vbk://9781285404820

Fisher, S. (2019, July 30). What is TCP/IP and How Does it Work? Retrieved October 22, 2019, from https://www.avast.com/c-what-is-tcp-ip#topic-3.

Rouse, M., & Gerwig, K. (2019, July). TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Retrieved October 22, 2019, from https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/TCP-IP.

Simonelis, A. (2005, February). Ubiquity: A Concise Guide to the Major Internet Bodies. Retrieved October 22, 2019, from https://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1071915.