Unit 3 Assignment
IT283 Networking with TCP/IP
|Point-to-Point Protocol||Encapsulation protocol for IP traffic in point-to-point links. Created a standard for assignment and management of IP Addresses. Established options for network layer address negotiation.|
|Frame Relay||High performance for more reliable connection services, and more reliability for sending traffic.|
|Asyncronous Transfer Mode (ATM)||Typically used for mobile devices. Can carry multiple types of data: voice, video, and data. Frames are fixed in length to reduce transmission delays.|
- Explain the difference between the Ethernet II frame structure and the Ethernet 802.2 LLC frame structure.
- Ethernet II and Ethernet 802.2 LLC Frames are the standard frame types that TCP/IP can use when structuring packets to be set across the internet. The main difference is the use of a SAP field, rather than a Type field. These fields are used to indicate the type of protocols carried by the frames themselves. The minimum frame size for Ethernet frame is 64 bytes, if the frames do not meet this size, then the data must be padded to fill it. The maximum size is 1,518 bytes. The Type field and the SAP field are both of similar natures. The Type field used by Ethernet II frames indicates the protocol used by that frame, such as IPv4, IPv6, or ARP. The SAP field used by Ethernet 802.2 LLC frames is used to indicate the upcoming protocol. These protocols include Null LSAP, SNA Path control, DOD IP, Proway LAN.
- Data Link Layer WAN Protocols:
- Four Step ARP troubleshooting Guide using Command Line:
- Step 1. Arp -a
- Step 2. Arp -d
- Step 3. Arp -s
- Step 4. Arp -a
- When using the ARP command in the command line, you can find out information about IP addresses and the MAC addresses that are linked to them. This is a good way to facilitate the communication between two hosts that are on the same network. Using the ARP command, an administrator can handle manually add or delete entries in the table, as well as troubleshoot misconfigured network hosts. A problem that can occur while using ARP is that two hosts can be configured to have the same IP address if they are statically assigned by the DHCP server. Using the command line these problems can be fixed by purging and adding entries to the ARP table (InetDaemon, 2018).
- Routing in IPv4 and IPv6
- Routing in IPv4 starts with the host creating a packet to send out into the network. After determining whether or not the destination is local based on the subnet mask. If it knows the MAC address of the destination, then the entire packet is formed with all requisite information and sent through the routers on the routing table for a local network host. If the destination is not on the same network, then the router gives the packet over to the appropriate router for transmission through a series of hops to its destination. If the destination router is not known to the source, then a general ARP request is sent out to fill in the blanks. Generally, the changes that are required for IPv6 use is the scaling for dealing with a 128 bit address space (Carrell, 2012). A way for routers to prevent loops is the use of a technique known as “counting to infinity (Carrell, 2012)” in which the router places a limit on the number of hops it can make before the destination is unreachable.
- IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols.
- Overall, the basic routing protocols for IPv4 and IPv6 are the same. There is little information that is different. The header structure is slightly different and carries fields that are only inserted if they are necessary for the routing of a packet. The protocols that are used for IPv6 are upgraded to accommodate the hexadecimal nature of the IPv6 address. The protocols that are used with IPv6 are RIPng, OSPFv3. RIPng’s difference between the two IP protocols is the accommodation of the IPv6 prefix. Where they are the same is in regards to the number of hops allowed by the packets, the distance vector, and loop prevention. OSPFv3, or Open Shortest Path First version 3, is an upgrade to the current version used by IPv4. OSPFv3 is specifically designed for IPv6. The difference between OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 is the removal of the addressing semantics and link-state advertisements.
- ARP and NDP
- Address Resolution Protocol and Neighbor Discovery Protocol do the same basic things across the two Internet Protocol versions. They are designed to effectively route the traffic from one host to another on the same network for ease of transmission. They require the same information to create the packets: the source IP, destination IP, and the link-layer address for the next router to send the information through. Where these two protocols differ is NDP sends out a router solicitation message as a multicast message. This message is asking for the prefix of the other routers it runs into, along with the services it is configured with. These link-state routers respond with a router advertisement message with their link-layer address, and the MTU that router can accept as a packet. (Carrell, 2012).
MAC Address of my computer: 0A-17-7D-57-D0-AF
Different OSPF Messages: Hello Packet, DB Descriptions, LS Request, LS Update, LS Acknowledge:
Hello messages: establish router adjacencies for shortest paths.
DB Descriptions: Database descriptions describe LSDB (link-state database) for network sync.
LS Request: After syncing, the router may have unmatched link-state entries. Router requests the updated version of these entries before purging.
LS Update: The answer to a request for information about a link-state. Only sent to adjacent routers.
LS Acknowledge: Used to acknowledge each request for updates.
Carrell, J. L., Chappell, L., Tittel, E. (20120905). Guide to TCP/IP, 4th Edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from vbk://9781285404820
InetDaemon. (2018, May 19). ARP – Network Troubleshooting Tool. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from https://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/troubleshooting/tools/arp.shtml#MS-https://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/troubleshooting/tools/arp.shtml#MS-DOSArp.
Richardson, S. (2016, November 25). Typical WAN Protocols – BCRAN. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from https://www.ccexpert.us/bcran/typical-wan-protocols.html.
Teare, D., Graziani, R., & Vachon, B. (2016, February 25). Cisco Press. Retrieved November 4, 2019, from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2294214.
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