Updating System Software

The operating system manages all the other programs on the computer. The programs use the operating system by requesting services through an Application Program Interface (API). (“What is operating system (OS)?”, n.d.) Additionally, the operating system controls the computer’s hardware resources including, input, output, storage, and network devices. (“What is an Operating System (OS)?”, n.d.)

  1. Explain what an operating system does.

What is an Operating System (OS)? – Definition from Techopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/3515/operating-system-os

What is operating system (OS)? – Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/operating-system-OS

The operating system manages the processor by arranging each requested activity into slices for the processor to complete. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014) When two or more programs simultaneously require the processor, the operating system will determine which program will be first. If the processor is multicore then the operating system will determine which core will handle the requested process. (Davis, 2019)

  1. How does the OS manage the processor?

Davis, I. (2019, January 10). Common Hardware & Software Resources Managed by Operating Systems. Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://itstillworks.com/common-resources-managed-operating-systems-7243998.html

Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

The operating system coordinates many operations within the computer. It manages the processor to prioritize its work before sending it to the CPU. It controls the flow of data to and from the RAM, and uses virtual memory if there is not enough RAM. The operating system coordinates the hardware connected to the computer including all the network functions. It directs where the data is created, read, edited, moved, copied, and deleted on the hard drive. The application interface is coordinated through the operating system to manage the data between the installed software and the computer. (“How PCs Work”, 2001)

  1. What activities are coordinated by the OS?

Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

How PCs Work. (2001, June 05). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://computer.howstuffworks.com/pc4.htm

The operating system uses Random Access Memory (RAM) as temporary storage for the processor awaiting instructions or data. The operating system coordinates within the RAM the storage space necessary for all the awaiting instructions or data. Once the processor completes the action the operating system clears the RAM for additional activities requiring the processor. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014)

  1. How does the OS manage the computer’s memory?

Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

Virtual memory is the transferring of data from the RAM to the hard drive temporarily to increase a RAM shortage. The operating system uses software and hardware to identify a RAM shortage and transfers the data from the RAM to the hard drive which will emulate RAM to free up space for the physical memory. With virtual memory larger or multiple programs can operate as if it has endless memory without having the user to purchase more RAM. (“What is virtual memory?”, n.d.)

  1. What is virtual memory and how does it work?

What is virtual memory? – Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/virtual-memory

The operating system uses a program called a device driver to communicate with the specific peripheral device and the operating system. Each peripheral device has particular command that the operating system understands using the device driver for that peripheral. Without the operating system interpreting the device driver the piece of hardware would be unable to function. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014)

  1. How does the OS manage peripheral devices?

Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

Device drivers are software programs that interact with the computers operating system to translate the connected hardware special commands into language that the operating system can comprehend. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014) Most device drivers are pre-installed with the operating system, but on occasion depending on the age of the operating system, or the innovation of new hardware you might need to install a new device driver. Virtual device drivers are used to maintain the status of hardware devices that have changeable settings and use software interrupts instead of hardware interrupts. (“What is device driver?”, n.d.)

    1. What are device drivers?

    Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

    What is device driver? – Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://searchenterprisedesktop.techtarget.com/definition/device-driver

    Plug and Play (PnP) are software drivers that are preloaded into the operating system and automatically loads the drivers when the device is installed or connected to the computer. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014) The hardware uses an ID code identifying the device to the software, these codes are 4 bits or larger that contain a name or serial number. (“What is Plug and Play (PnP)?”, n.d.)

      1. What is PnP?

      Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

      What is Plug and Play (PnP)? – Definition from Techopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/3413/plug-and-play-pnp

      Each program requires interaction with the CPU using computer code that the CPU can translate. The operating system contains codes called API, which is software that allows the programs to interact with the CPU. API can prevent programmers from creating unnecessary software code, they allow them to allow look at the API code instead of producing an entire code for the operating system. Programmers try to leverage programs share the same interface or functionality from API’s and assists in responding to changes in the operating system. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014)

      1. How does the OS coordinate software?

      Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

      The Basic Input/ Output System (BIOS) is a small memory chip on the motherboard that manages the exchange of data between the operating system and the input and output components of the computer system. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014) This is the first step of the boot process for the computer. It can be accessed and configured through the BIOS utility screen and is contained on a ROM chip. The motherboard make and model will determine how to access the BIOS during the initial boot. (Fisher & Fisher, n.d.)

      1. What is the BIOS?

      Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

      Fisher, T., & Fisher, T. (n.d.). BIOS: Everything You Need to Know. Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.lifewire.com/bios-basic-input-output-system-2625820

      The BIOS is responsible for providing the computer instructions for initially loading the operating system when the computer is first switched on. Some of the tasks it performs prior to loading the operating system are, conducting the POST to ensure the hardware is operating properly, activating additional BIOS chips on graphics cards, interfaces with the hardware components of the computer while the computer is booting, manages the settings for the hard disks, and manages the clock. (Tyson, 2000)

        1. What does the BIOS do?

        Tyson, J. (2000, September 06). How BIOS Works. Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://computer.howstuffworks.com/bios1.htm

        The Power-on Self-Test (POST) is a diagnostic test run by the BIOS to ensure that all the hardware on the computer is properly working prior to the computer booting the operating system. (Jackman, n.d.) If the POST fails it will emit a beep code defining the error encountered. (“What is POST?”, 2018) To troubleshoot POST codes quickly numerous companies market POST diagnostic cards that plug into the computers PCI or ISA slots to identify the hardware error without the use of a monitor, keyboard or hard drive. (Jackman, n.d.)

          1. What is POST?

          Jackman, M. (n.d.). Use a POST card to save time when troubleshooting failed hardware. Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/use-a-post-card-to-save-time-when-troubleshooting-failed-hardware/

          What is POST? (2018, November 13). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/p/post.htm

          The kernel is an essential part of the computers operating system, it is responsible for managing the CPU and the components of the computer. (Evans, Martin, Poatsy, 2014) It connects the software with the hardware that manages disk management, task management, and memory management. It interfaces with three major components, the CPU, the memory, and the input and output devices. (“What is Kernel?”, n.d.)

            1. What is the kernel?

            Evans, A. D., Martin, K., & Poatsy, M. A. (2014). Technology in action introductory. Boston, Mass.: Pearson.

            What is Kernel? – Definition from Techopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/3277/kernel

            Beep codes are audio signals that are designed to inform the user if there are any issues with the computers initial booting. Beep codes are a small program within the POST and ensures that all the computers components are present and operating properly. (1) Depending on the computers BIOS manufacturer will determine the meaning of each beep code. You will need to look up the codes based on the BIOS manufacturer if there is an error and a beep code is emitted. (“What is beep code?”, n.d.)

              1. What are beep codes?

              What is beep code? – Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/beep-code

              Three different operating systems available to users are Microsoft Windows 10, Google Chrome OS and Red Hat Linux. (Computer Operating Systems”, 2018) Windows is used on 87.56 percent of computers, while Linux is 2.14 percent and Chrome OS is .32 percent worldwide. (n.d.) Each operating system has their positives and negatives based upon the size and complexity of the business. Chrome OS is more suited for schools with Wi-fi since it directly runs on the internet. Red Hat Linux is more suited for larger businesses with a large IT network to troubleshoot issues with the open source code. Windows is the most mainstream operating system with high ratings in ease of use, administration, quality of support and can be used within all sized businesses. (“RedHat Linux vs Windows 10”, n.d.)

              1. What are three different operating systems (note – only one can be Microsoft)?

              (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.netmarketshare.com/operating-system-market-share.aspx?

              Computer Operating Systems. (2018, January 24). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.computerhope.com/os.htm

              RedHat Linux vs Windows 10. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.g2crowd.com/compare/redhat-enterprise-linux-vs-windows-10

              Based on research, I would recommend to use the Windows 10 operating system for the business.

              1. Which operating system would you recommend?
              2. Globally, Windows 10 is the most widely used operating system by businesses of all sizes. The ease of use for basic users and the familiarity that comes with the operating system will assist in the training aspect. There is a large amount of software available for the operating system including the Microsoft Office Suite and coupled with cloud services can increase productivity overall. It has built in security with Windows Defender, Windows Firewall, facial and fingerprint recognition as security features. Bitlocker is built in to provide additional security to boot the computer. (“What’s the best operating system for your business?”, n.d)

                1. Why?
                2. What’s the best operating system for your business? (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2019, from https://www.independent.ie/storyplus/whats-the-best-operating-system-for-your-business-35306096.html