SESSION 6 Mid-Term Exam
University of Maryland University College
Release: Fri, Oct 14; due back Sun (COB), Oct 23, post to Assignments
This is an essay exam limited to 7 pages max, double spaced with proper APA margins. If you are having trouble getting this all in, switch to space and a half vice double space. If you do so and do not have charts or graphs you are not using all the tools you have to get your point(s) across. Again, to answer these questions you may need to use charts or ented sections with basic points or “bullets” identified. Don’t forget that this is still an essay exam. Note the weight of each question and answer appropriately. Do not spend 2 pages on a 5 point question. References are not required.
when acquiring or developing an IT suite for your business. If no PM process is
- (10%) What are project management processes? What are product-orientated processes? Give examples of both. Why is there a balance between the two? (Craft this well to tie into Question 2). Project management processes are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project. Example of project management processes is the project initiation, project planning, project execution, control and validation, and closeout and evaluation. Product-oriented processes are concerned with specifying and creating the project product. Product-oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle. Examples of Project-oriented process is various construction techniques and tools need to be considered when determining the overall complexity of the house to be built. The Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project. Project Management Process Integration requires each project and product process to be appropriately aligned and connected with the other process to facilitate their coordination.
- (30%) List and discuss the advantages of using project management processes
used, discuss possible negative impacts. Include some basics: What is a project?
What is project management? Plus, describe the relationship between scope, schedule,
and budget. Remember to provide a conclusion for responses to complex questions.
The advantages of using project management processes when acquiring Ninja software package for my business would be the following:
Initiate- the preliminary work is done to clarify the problem or opportunity and how a solution would look. All interested parties are consulted and the project scope, what is in and what is out clarifies as well as initial costings and timelines.
Planning- More work is done to define whether the proposed project will be of real benefit to the business. If it is, the project is approved and more detailed planning starts. Business benefits, project goals, requirements, scope and project management methodology are agreed on. At this point the PM will draw up the detail project schedule, task and budget allocations.
Project execution- This is where you put all the planning into action. Project sponsors are interviewed to learn the detailed requirements, possible solutions are discussed and one decided upon. Next, the solution is designed, built and finally implemented. Project management activities in this phase also include managing the project budget and schedule, reporting project progress, communicating with sponsors and responding to project risks, issues and proposed changes.
Control and validation- the benefit of validation is a series of tests and controls, where verification is ensuring that those tests produced the expected results. If the process is not done the software could fail and cost my business and sponsors. A project is a unique, transient endeavor, undertaken to achieve planned objectives, which could be defined in terms of outputs, outcomes or benefits. Project Management is the Validation may be a complicated series of tests and controls, where verification is ensuring that those tests produced the expected results. The relationship between scope, schedule, and budget, the budget is a function of schedule and scope. If we have a constant budget, the only two variables are scope and schedule. Changes to project scope affect project schedule. It is necessary that every change to the project scope is justified, approved by a competent authority and recorded prior to integration to the original project scope. The updated project scope should be utilized to change the project schedule to arrive at the new set of activity start and finish dates and milestone dates, and the updated budget. Modifications to project scope and resulting change in schedule have a direct bearing on project budget.
Spiral model- is similar to the incremental model, with more emphases placed on risk analysis. The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral, starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed. Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral.
- (30%) Compare and contrast two prototyping or SDLC models. Be sure to identify pros and cons of each. (See weekly readings concerning SDLCs).
- Waterfall Model-This is one of the simplest, classic life-cycle models, also known as the ‘linear-sequential’ life cycle model. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before moving onto the next. A review process is scheduled at the end of each phase to check that the project is on the right track.
- Pros of the waterfall model:
- Efficient if requirements known. Good for repeated applications.
- Cons of the waterfall model:
- No feedback or change in process. Cumbersome, likely to fail (2% success DoD)
- Manages risk, feedback, well-defined. Works on large projects
Pros of the Spirals:
Cons of the Spirals: