Library Research— Training Police Recruits

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Library Research—Training Police Recruits

ByAnnMarie Allgeier Argosy University

Training Police Recruits

“Chief Draper has noticed that the behavior of many of his officers reflects a lack of understanding of many basic criminal justice concepts. He believes that police recruits need more training on the following topics:” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017).“Discretion” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Ethics” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017“Probable cause” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Plain view doctrine” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Arrest” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Good faith exception” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Reasonable suspicion” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Use of force” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017)“Racial profiling” (myclassonline.com.Argosy.edu. 2017).

Training Police Recruits

Discretion: Police discretion refers to the exercise of choice by law enforcement officers in the decision to investigate or apprehend, the disposition of suspects, the carrying out of official duties, and the application of sanctions” (Schmalleger. 2014). This is a “powerful basic tool in policing” (P1 Community. 2014). Arizona vs. Johnson, 120 S. Ct. 781 (2009) (Wallentine. 2009)Key training points *retrieved from commandanswers.com*(Ramsey. 2017)Positive interactionGuidanceMentoringDiversion

Training Police Recruits

Ethics: “The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in police work” (Schmalleger. 2014).State vs. Steele. (Lynch. 2013) Key training points *retrieved from International Association of Chiefs of Police*Protect and “serve the community” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)Safe-guard “lives and property” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)“Protect the innocent from deception” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)“Protect the weak from oppression or intimidation” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)“Protect the peaceful from violence” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)“Respect constitutional rights of all to liberty, equality, and justice” (International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017)Being mindful of the welfare of others

Training Police Recruits

Probable cause: “Probable cause refers to the necessary level of belief that would allow for police seizures (arrests) of individuals and full searches of dwellings, vehicles, and possessions” (Schmalleger. 2014).Brinegar vs. United States (No. 12) (Cornell Law School. 2017). Key training points *Retrieved from LegalMatch. 2017*“Observation—Learn how to gain information through observing” (LaMance. 2016)Expertise—training of police officers which enables them to identify certain movements, gestures, preparations, or tools as tending to indicate criminal activity” (LaMance. 2016)“Information—learn how to acquire statements from victims and witnesses” (LaMance. 2016)“Sensory—learns how to detect evidence of a crime through sight, smell or hearing” (LaMance. 2016)

Training Police Recruits

Plain view doctrine: “is an exception to the warrant requirement which allows officers to seize items which they observe and immediately recognize as evidence or contraband while they are lawfully present in an area protected by the 4th Amendment” (Ryan. 2017). Horton vs. California. 496 US 128 (1990) (Justia US Supreme Court. 2017)Key training points *retrieved from dls_B_handouts.pdf*Review search and seizure relating to Probation/Parole Describe the plain view doctrineDiscuss Composition and Imposition of Search Conditions

Training Police Recruits

Arrest: “the act of taking an adult or juvenile into physical custody by authority of law for the purpose of charging the person with a criminal offense, a delinquent act, or a status offense, terminating with the recording of a specific offense” (Schmalleger. 2014).Virginia vs. Moore. (06-1082) (Cornell Law School. 2017)Key training points *retrieved from Point Park University*Criminal law and proceduresPatrol and investigation practices and techniquesFirearmsHuman values and problemsFirst aidPhysical training

Training Police Recruits

Good faith exception: “An exception to the exclusionary rule. Law enforcement officers who conduct a search or who seize evidence on the basis of good faith (that is, when they believe they are operating according to the dictates of the law) and who later discover that a mistake was made (perhaps in the format of the application for a search warrant) may still provide evidence that can be used in court” (Schmalleger. 2014)(Course Hero. 2017).Davis vs. United States (09-11328) (Cornell Law School. 2017)Key training points *retrieved from volokh.com. Kerr. 2010*Follow the Fourth Amendment Make sure the belief of search is legalTry to follow the law

Training Police Recruits

Miranda: “Explanation of rights that must be given before any custodial interrogation, stemming largely from the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination. The person detained and interrogated must be made aware of the right to remain silent, the right to consult with an attorney and have the attorney present during questioning, and the right to have an attorney appointed if indigent” (Cornell Law School. 2017). Key training points *retrieved ipfs.io*Suspect must be read Miranda rights when arrested “Miranda vs, Arizona (No. 759) (Cornell Law School. 2017) “Evidence must be gathered” (ipfs.io. 2017)“Evidence must be testimonial” (ipfs.io. 2017)“Evidence must be obtained while suspect is in custody” (ipfs.io. 2017)“Evidence must be the product of interrogation” (ipfs.io. 2017)“Interrogation must be conducted by state agents” (ipfs.io. 2017)

Training Police Recruits

Reasonable suspicion: “is the legal standard by which a police officer has the right to briefly detain a suspect for investigatory purposes and frisk the outside of their clothing for weapons, but not drugs. While many factors contribute to a police officer’s level of authority in a given situation, the reasonable suspicion standard requires facts or circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe that a suspect has, is, or will commit a crime” (Flex Your Rights. 2017).Illinois vs. Wardlow. (No. 98-1036) (FindLaw. 2017)Key training points *retrieved from Atlantic Training.com* “Understand “regulations that apply to reasonable suspicion testing” (Atlantic Training. 2017)“Recognize the signs and symptoms of alcohol and substance abuse” (Atlantic Training. 2017)“Know how to approach drivers in a professional and respectful manner” (Atlantic Training. 2017)“Understand how to initiate the reasonable suspicion process” (Atlantic Training. 2017)“Be able to effectively complete required documentation” (Atlantic Training. 2017)

Training Police Recruits

Use of force: “the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public” (Schmalleger. 2014). Scott vs. Harris. (05-1631) (Cornell Law School. 2017)Key training points *retrieved from fletc.gov*Legal Aspects of Use of ForceUse of ForceOfficer LiabilityOfficer Response Tactics Instructor Techniques for Non-Lethal Training Ammunition In Service Development Human Performance Behavior

Training Police Recruits

Racial Profiling: “any police action initiated on the basis of the race, ethnicity, or national origin of a suspect, rather than on the behavior of that individual or on information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity” (Schmalleger. 2014). Brown vs. City of Colorado Springs. (No. 15-02) (Aclu. 2017) Key training points *retrieved from Del Carmen Consulting*Understand the concept of cultureDiscuss the concept of symbolic interaction as they pertain to racial profiling Discuss the recommended changes to selected aspects of police culture in an attempt to establish a long-term solution to racial profiling practicesUnderstand the importance associated with the implementation of an evaluation component designed to measure police attitudes and practices on racial profiling

Training Police Recruits

RECOMMENDATIONS:My recommendations would be that;All police recruits and veteran police officers continue education courses in;Diversity—working with diverse populations within the department and communityEthics—learn all the changes or new ethical guidelinesRacial profiling—learn about ethnic and racial disparities in the justice system and reduce racial profilingImplement anti-bias trainingOnce an officer gains employment he/she must complete courses in law enforcement and criminal justice Officers must complete at least 24 hours of education per yearOfficers must also continue with courses/training in use of force and officer liability

References:

ACLU. 2017. Case Brown vs. City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved from https://aclu-co.org/court-cases/colorado-springs-racial-profiling/ Cornell Law School. 2017. Case Davis vs. United States. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/09-11328 Cornell Law School. 2017. Case Brinegar vs. United States. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/09-11328 Cornell Law School. 2017. Case Virginia vs. Moore. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/09-11328 Cornell Law School. 2017. Case Scott vs. Harris. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/cert/09-11328 FindLaw. 2017. Case Illinois vs. Wardlow. Retrieved from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/528/119.htmlJustia Supreme Court. 2017. Case Horton vs. California. Retrieved from https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/496/128/Lynch, T. 2013. Case State vs. Steele. Retrieved from https://www.policemisconduct.net/the-case-officer-julian-steele/ \

References:

Atlantic Training. 2017. A Supervisors Guide to Reasonable Suspicion Testing – Online Training Retrieved from http://www.atlantictraining.com/online-training/a-supervisors-guide-to-reasonable-suspicion-testing-online-training-8382.htmlCornell Law School. 2017. Miranda Rights. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/miranda_warningCornell Law School. 2017. Case Miranda vs. Arizona (No. 759). Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/miranda_warningDel Carmen Consulting, LLC. 2017. Racial Profiling: Policies and Practices. Retrieved from www.cjcenter.org/trcpi/doc/training_resource_library/ethics…/racial_profiling.pptFletc.gov. 2015. Use of Force Instructor Training Program. Retrieved from https://www.fletc.gov/training-program/use-force-instructor-training-program Flex Your Rights. 2017. What is Reasonable Suspicion? Retrieved from https://www.flexyourrights.org/faqs/what-is-reasonable-suspicion/ International Association of Chiefs of Police. 2017. Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/codeofethicsKerr, O. 2010. The Good Faith Exception and Changing Law: Misunderstanding “Good Faith” Retrieved from http://volokh.com/2010/03/19/the-good-faith-exception-and-changing-law-misunderstanding-good-faith/

References:

LaMance, K. 2016 Probable Cause Searches. Retrieved from https://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/probable-cause-searches.html P 1 Community. 2014 Do Police Officers Have Too Much or Too Little Discretion Retrieved from https://www.policeone.comPoint Park University. 2017. University Police. Retrieved from http://www.pointpark.edu/About/AdminDepts/PublicSafety/UniversityPoliceRamsey, G. 2017. Discretion and Policing. Retrieved from http://www.commandanswers.com/discretion-and-policingRyan, J. 2017. Plain View Doctrine/. Retrieved from http://policelink.monster.com/training/articlesSchmalleger, F. J. (01/2014). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century, 13th Edition. [Argosy University]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/9781323121412/Wallentine, K. 2009. Law Enforcement and the Law: PoliceOne Analysis: 12 Supreme Court Cases Affecting Cops. Retrieved from https://www.policeone.com/legal/articles/1964272-PoliceOne-Analysis-12-Supreme-Court-cases-affecting-cops/

References:

Course Hero. 2017 Student Papers submitted (Similarities): Retrieved September 21st, 2017 from https://www.coursehero.comIpfs.io. 2017 Miranda Warning. Retrieved September 21st, 2017 from https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Miranda_warning.html




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