Milestone 1

1Which of the following is a deductive argument?

Traffic is very heavy today. When traffic is heavy, I take the bus to work. I will take the bus to work today.

Helen was seen exiting the alley after a robbery had taken place. It follows that Helen committed the robbery.

Every time I’ve visited the farmer’s market, I’ve found heirloom tomatoes. So, this week when I go to the farmer’s market, I will find heirloom tomatoes.

It has snowed on my birthday every year since I was born. Therefore, it will snow on my birthday this year.


Deductive and Inductive Inference


Because she is a teacher who works with children, Yuki is required by law to report suspected abuse. One day a student says that his dad frequently hits him after having a drink. Despite the boy’s insistence that it’s a secret, Yuki informs the school office, which calls the authorities.

Yuki’s decision constitutes a(n) __________ action.






The Evaluation of Actions


Jerome conducts a survey to see how many of his neighbors believe they have a moral duty to report suspicious activity to the police. He finds that 8 in 10 believe they have such a duty.

Which branch of ethics do the results of Jerome’s survey represent?

Normative ethics

Descriptive ethics



Branches of Ethics


Kevin has thoroughly researched whether artificial intelligence can have free will.

In order to continue his philosophical inquiry, what should Kevin’s next step be?

Kevin should carefully consider each argument for or against artificial intelligence having free will.

Kevin should reframe his question to be about whether humans have free will.

Kevin should choose a side and look for arguments that support it.

Kevin should choose a side based on how many arguments there are in favor of it.


The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry


The following statements are all part of one argument.

Which one is the conclusion?

Jenny hasn’t seen her mother in a month.

Children who haven’t seen their mothers in more than a week miss their mothers.

A month is longer than a week.

Jenny misses her mother.


Premises and Conclusions


Which of the following is an argument?

Not getting enough sleep on a regular basis is a problem for many adults.

If I go to Washington D.C. next weekend, then I’ll get you a souvenir.

I begin my day with a one-mile run, a shower, and a healthy breakfast.

Janet studies every day and takes notes in class. She will probably do well in the class for that reason.


Introduction to Arguments


Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who’s been asked for money on the street?

Do I have cash on me right now?

What is the beggar’s race?

Have I given money to beggars before?

Is giving money the best way to help?


Actions and Events


An argument is valid, and its premises are true.

Which of the following terms best describes the argument?






Evaluating an Argument


Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy?

Philosophy defends what is traditional in society.

Philosophy is useful as a tool to justify personal opinions.

Philosophy maintains society’s collective memory.

Philosophy improves understanding of argumentation.


Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics


Which of the following is a philosophical question?

Can one sport be objectively better than another?

What is the capital of the United States?

How many people live in poverty in the world?

When was the first World Series played?


Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry


Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics.

Select the example related to law.

We tipped the server 25% because he did an excellent job.

Nancy was baptized when she was a baby.

I am the only insured driver, so my daughter cannot drive the rental car.

Jack allows a woman with children to board the airplane first.


Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics


Which of the following statements is true of ethics?

Ethics is only important in the workplace.

Ethics is about doing whatever it takes to get ahead.

Right and wrong are purely subjective.

The goal of ethics is to search for truths in order to be a better person.


Introduction to Philosophical Ethics


Which of the following is a valid deductive argument?

All cyclists are health-conscious. Byron is health-conscious. Therefore, Byron is a cyclist.

Every time it snows, the roads need to be plowed. It is supposed to snow later today. Therefore, the roads will need to be plowed later today.

Smith is one of the most common last names in the United States. My friend Todd is a very common person. Therefore, Todd’s last name is Smith.

For over five decades, fantasy fiction has been very popular. It will probably continue to be popular in the coming decade.


Evaluating the Structure of an Argument


Which of the following statements reflects conventionalism?

Moral truths differ from culture to culture.

Moral truths do not exist.

Moral truths differ from person to person.

Moral truths are universal.


Categorizing Ethical Theories


Which of the following statements about philosophy is true?

Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields.

Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge.

Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation.

Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry.