Milestone 2 Test

Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist?

Krysta has some time to kill, so she sits in the mall and watches people go by.

Katie picks up litter on the street because she wants to live in a clean neighborhood.

Kevin works late, even though he doesn’t get paid and has nothing to gain from it.

Keith gives up the comfort of home to realize his dream of playing in the NBA.


Commitments of Egoism


Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument?

A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong.

Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality.

Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal.

Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist.


Problems with Conventionalism


Michelle is visiting a Muslim country. She doesn’t know what to expect because she knows that some Muslim societies expect women to wear a head-scarf when they are outdoors. When she gets off of the airplane, Michelle immediately notices that all the women in the airport are wearing head-scarves.

According to conventionalism, which action would be most appropriate for Michelle to take?

Buy a head scarf and keep it in her purse in case someone tells her to put it on.

Buy a head-scarf and put it on.

Tie her hair back and put on a baseball cap.

Let her hair show because she isn’t Muslim.


Applying Conventionalism


Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism?

Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions.

Because good is determined by self-interest, the egoist cannot judge the actions of others.

Cooperating with others is a social skill that egoists do not have an opportunity to learn.

Individuals pursuing personal excellence often help a society to progress.


Problems with Egoism


According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________.

individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics

hard work is valued by all

societal standards demand it

it sets a positive example for others


Applying Egoism


Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory?

God says, “Woe to those who are rich,” but many people strive for wealth.

God forbids divorce, so my wife and I didn’t make a prenuptial agreement.

God says to keep the Sabbath holy, so many people don’t have to work on the weekend.

God forbids the worship of idols, so I only worship him.


Applying Divine Command Theory


Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true?

Divine command theory helps make sense of humanity’s place in the world.

Divine command theory is reflective in that reason plays a role in determining right and wrong.

Divine command theory does not tend to fulfill people’s emotional needs.

Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral.


Support for Divine Command Theory


Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism?

Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, “You do you.”

Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups.

Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes.

Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, “Greed is good.”


Support for Conventionalism


Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory?

Divine command theory relies on sacred texts that are silent on some issues.

Divine command theory doesn’t give a compelling reason for being good.

Divine command theory does not offer a firm basis for morality.

Divine command theory is too relative.


Refutations of Divine Command Theory


Why is egoism considered a relativist theory of ethics?

Because it maintains that there are universal truths most people agree on.

Because right and wrong are subject to the individual agent.

Because it maintains that what is good applies to everyone equally.

Because it maintains that humans are not inherently selfish.




Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist?

“Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories.”

“Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good.”

“Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality.”

“Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures.”




Erika, like most people in her culture, grows flowers in her yard. 

What would a conventionalist call Erika’s action?






Commitments of Conventionalism


After moving to a new city, Rachel continues to support her hometown’s baseball team. A friend tells her she has to support her new city’s team, but Rachel points out that God hasn’t said anything on the matter.

In Rachel’s view, her action is __________ according to divine command theory.






Commitments of Divine Command Theory


Which of the following statements supports egoism?

A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals.

Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others.

The rule of law motivates actions for individuals.

A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone.


Support for Egoism


Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true?

Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions.

Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means.

Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn’t is bad.

Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so.

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