NURS 6501 Assignment Adaptive Response

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Assignment: Adaptive Response

Name

Walden University

NURS 6501, Advanced Pathophysiology

date

Introduction

All humans are designed with two types of immunity; innate and adaptive. The innate immune system can distinguish between different classes of pathogens and recruit the most effective form of adaptive immune response to eliminate them.Adaptive responses are a response that the body adapts to certain injuries or insults. Innate responses are non-specific to the insult. Unlike innate immune responses, the adaptive responses are highly specific to the particular pathogen that induced them (Alberts et al, 2004).Injured tissue cells release chemicals that cause inflammation called “chemical mediators of inflammation.” These chemicals primarily produce their effects in the localized areas where they are released(Alberts et al, 2004). It is extremely important that health care professionals are familiar with innate and adaptive responses to correctly treat the condition and symptoms a presenting patient may be experiencing.

Pathophysiology and Alteration in Case Study #1

In case study number one the child’s body is reacting to a bacterial infection in the throat. When bacteria is introduced to the body it can stimulate an immune response (Huether&McCance, 2012). Normally there is normal flora that prevents the bacteria from attacking the host. However, for many reasons the protective mechanism may be ineffective and then the body reacts to the virus or bacteria antigen. The virus or bacteria is the antigen that activates the complement system. The activation of the complement system causes the release of cytokines. The cytokines are the mediators responsible for the symptoms the child is experiencing. The cytokines that are specifically responsible for the symptoms are prostaglandins. The release of prostaglandins causes pain, fever and inflammation of the tonsillar tissue. When released prostaglandins are able to reset the temperature control center in the brain thus, resulting in a fever.

Pathophysiology and Alteration in Case Study #2

In this case study the body activates the innate immune system. The skin which is the first line of defense senses a insult from the abrasive chemicals. After the injury from the chemicals the body activates its second line of defense (Huether&McCance, 2012). The result of the exposure to the chemicals results in a hypersensitivity. It is considered a type IV tissue specific type of hypersensitivity. These types of reactions are mediated by T lymphocytes. When the skin on the hands became exposed over a period of time a delayed cell mediated response was triggered.

Pathophysiology and Alteration in Case Study #3

In the third case study the patient is experiencing a reaction to the influence of stress over time. The stress response is complex and involves mechanisms of both protection and injury(Huether&McCance, 2012). In this case the patient is experiencing two types of stress: physiological and perceived stress. Her history of hypertension is the environmental stress. This is a type of chronic stress. The emotional stress of her mother’s broken hip triggers the stress response by the body. When the alarm reaction occurs it results in an increased secretion by the adrenal medulla of glucocorticoids, epinephrine and norepinephrine(Huether&McCance, 2012). The release of those substances stimulates the “fight or flight” response. The secretion of those substances are the cause of her “racing heart rate’, decreased appetite and inability to sleep.

Conclusion

The pathophysiology of the bodies’ actual or perceived threat is a complex mechanism. It may serve as a mechanism for defense, adaptation or autoimmunity when its protective mechanisms become detrimental to the bodies maintenance of homeostasis. Activation of these systems and their adaptations may manifest in many ways. It is important to understand the physiology of the immune response to adequately and accurately treat the host.

References

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. Chapter 24, The Adaptive Immune System. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21070/

Huether, S. E., &McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Walden University M.S. in Nursing

Formative Evaluation Criteria for Applications and Formal Papers

  Points
Assignment exceeds expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 75% containing exceptional breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 25-30  
Assignment meets expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 50% containing good breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 20-24  
Assignment meets most of the expectations. One required topic is either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 16-19  
Assignment superficially meets some of the expectations. Two or more required topics are either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 0-15  
A clear and comprehensive purpose statement is provided which delineates all required criteria. 5  
Purpose of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive. 4  
Purpose of the assignment is vague. 1-3  
No purpose statement was provided. 0  
ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS – 50 Possible PointsThe extent to which the work reflects the student’s ability to-    
Demonstrates the ability to critically appraise and intellectually explore key concepts. 9-10  
Demonstrates a clear understanding of key concepts. 8  
Shows some degree of understanding of key concepts. 5-7  
Shows a lack of understanding of key concepts, deviates from topics. 0-4  
Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view. 15-20  
Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3 to 4 course resources to support major points and point of view. 10-14  
Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2-3 resources to support major points and point of view. 3-9  
Includes and integrates specific information from 0 to 1 resource to support major points and point of view. 0-2  
Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice. 18-20  
Summarizes information gleaned from sources to support major points, but does not synthesize. 16-17  
Identifies but does not interpret or apply concepts, and/or strategies correctly; ideas unclear and/or underdeveloped. 14-15  
Rarely or does not interpret, apply, and synthesize concepts, and/or strategies. 0-13  
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards. 5  
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 80% of the time. 4  
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 70% of the time. 3  
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards < 70% of the time. 0-2  
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 5  
Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 4  
Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 3  
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. 0-2  
Uses correct APA format with no errors. 5  
Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. 4  
Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. 3  
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors. 0-2  
Total Points for Assignment:    

Please copy and paste this rubric table at the end of all Application Assignments in order for your assignment to be graded.

Guidance for Application Assignments:

Application Assignments require a title page, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion, and reference page. The title page needs to follows APA style and includes a title, student name, course number and section, and date. An abstract is not required. APA style headings are to be used appropriately to separate and organize sections of the paper. The use of direct quotes is discouraged and should only be used when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable.The introduction should provide an overview of the topic, the purpose of the paper, and topics that will be addressed. The body of the paper needs to address all required topics. The conclusion ought to provide closure for the reader, synthesize the content, and tie everything together to help clarify the main points of the paper. The reference page should include all references cited in the assignment in correct APA format..Some course assignments may require the use of more than 2 credible outside resources. In these cases, the minimum outside sources specified in the instructions for the assignment will be applied in the grading of these course assignments. Credible sources include scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, evidence based resources, and professional (.org), educational (.edu), and government websites (.gov). Commercial websites (.com) are not considered credible sources. Please note: When selecting articles for course assignments, you are advised (unless you are referencing seminal information) to focus on work published within the past five years.

Late Policies:

Assignments submitted late without prior agreement of the Instructor, outside of an emergency absence, or in violation of agreements for late submission, will receive a grade reduction for the Assignment amounting to a 20% point loss. After 5 days, the Assignment will not be graded. Students should be aware that late Assignments may not receive the same level of written feedback as do Assignments submitted on time.




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