Therapy for Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders

Therapy for Pediatric Clients with Mood Disorders

Student Name

Institution Name

NURS – 6630M-Approaches to Treatment

8/12//2019

Therapy for Pediatric Clients with Mood Disorders

Introduction

Youthful patients are not immune to significant burdensome disorder and related comorbidities since they have been in this world for a brief span. The medicinal experts ought not to disregard surveying this condition, precisely analyze, and deal with the disease. As indicated by Maughan, Collishaw, and Stringaris (2013) referenced that childhood, significant burdensome disorders (MDD) happen at a pace of 10-17 rate in the wide populace.

The rate of MDD is seen at a more elevated level (multiplied) in females more than guys. Other logical examinations have portrayed MDD in children as a guideline purpose behind the expansion in illnesses and passings in youngsters (Rao, 2013). Also, there is a knock up of sadness in early high schooler years, and increments as an individual experience life expectancy’s achievements.

Also, if these people with mental health conditions need appropriate administration physiologically and psychologically, the illnesses can turn into a tireless mental ailment (Rao, 2013). Magellan Health (2013) has revealed that only one-fifth of these children with mental health concerns have strong administrations from talented clinicians and around 8 million children are on at any rate one psychotropic prescription.

A few manifestations of MDD found in children may reflect a portion of the ones saw in grown-ups, for example, abatement and change in fast eye development (REM) rest, increment cortisol generation during despondency cycles, and the hereditary hazard factor (Rao, 2013). Different biomarkers for adolescents incorporate troublesome childhood, inflammatory disorders like diabetes, and changes to the frontal areas in the limbic and striatal frameworks in brain 9(Rao, 2013).

Treatments differ as to the indications of wretchedness. The objective of treatment is to diminish the indications of the ailment. Vitiello (2012) has provided details regarding the parts of treatments that clinicians need to consider. It is recommended that a total appraisal, co-morbidities, past mental health history, mental treatments, and pharmacological mediations ought to be a piece of the arrangement.

The motivation behind this paper is to talk about the psychiatric disorders and its impact on children, assess accessible evaluations, investigate diagnostic apparatuses, accessible medications, for example, antidepressants and ponder on legalities and moral choices that may emerge.

Summary of the patient case

A mother brought her 8-year-old African American male who has revealed scenes of feeling “sad” to the ER. Mother referenced that the patient’s instructor has said that the customer has withdrawal from peers.

Mother has watched decline craving and sporadic cycles of bothering. He is showing indications of depression. Physical test unremarkable, research facility tests were ordinary inside parameters, and the patient has alluded to the Nurse Practitioner for psychiatric assessment. The mental health test (MSE) shows that the customer was alert and arranged x3. He was a decent history specialist.

The customer announced being “sad” with a blunted affect, he grinned discontinuously. He denies visual or sound-related fantasy and No fanciful or jumpy manner of thinking watched. Age fitting mindfulness, judgment, and understanding noted. He denies current self-destructive ideation yet has had considerations of being dead. The diagnostic apparatus of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale shows the score of 30 (translated to critical depression).

Decision 1

Options

The options listed were Sertraline 25mg by mouth daily, Paxil 10 mg by mouth daily and Wellbutrin 75 mg by mouth 2x/daily
Option Taken:

I chose Sertraline 25 mg by mouth daily
Reason for the choosing the option:

According to Magellan Health (2013), studies have shown that Sertraline is appropriate for treating depression in young children compared to placebos. “(SSRIs) have a relatively good response rate (40 – 70%)” (p.7), the client is 8 years old.
Reason for ignoring the other 2 options:

Magellan Health (2013), have discussed the parameter of given Paxil as contraindicated for children younger than 18 and the same age limitations for Wellbutrin. Additionally, Wellbutrin is associated with high risks for anorexia and seizures (p.16)
Treatment Goal:

The initial goal of therapy is the reduction in symptoms without escalation to current signs.
Expected Outcome:

No, “Client returns to the clinic in four weeks. No change in depressive symptoms at all” I expected a minimum placebo response but the client reported that there was no change in symptoms.

Decision 2

Option

The option listed was Prozac 10 mg by mouth daily, Sertraline 37.5 mg by mouth daily, Sertraline 50 mg by mouth daily
Option Taken:

I chose to increase the Sertraline to 50 mg by mouth daily
Reason for choosing this option:

According to Magellan Health (2013), studies have shown that Sertraline is appropriate for treating depression in young children and the dosage can be titrated to up to 200mgs (p.18). The 25mg dose might not be the right therapeutic dose and to give it few more weeks.

Reason for ignoring the other options:

I did not pick Sertraline 37.5 because it is well below the therapeutic dose suggestion. The reason for not choosing Prozac 10 mg by mouth daily, is to see if the current medication will improve symptoms by titrating it up and the client did not report an increase in depression.
Treatment Goal:

The goal of treatment is still the reduction in symptoms without escalation to current clinical signs.
Expected Outcome:

Result “Depressive symptoms decrease by 50%. The client is tolerating well” No, I assumed some decrease in symptoms but not 50% reduction.

Decision 3

Option:

The choices were to maintain current dose, change to SNRI, or Increase to Sertraline 75 mg by mouth daily.
Option Taken:

I chose to maintain current dose
Reason for taking this option:

Stahl (2008) has mentioned that a 50% reduction in symptoms after treatment with an antidepressant is a “response.” My rationale is to maintain the current dose is to see if there is a further reduction of clinical signs or remission (“When treatment of depression results in the removal of essentially all symptoms” (Stahl, 2008)
Reason for ignoring the other options:

The reason for not choosing the other two options was that the client got a 50% response from current dose without further symptoms
Treatment Goal:

The goal is for the client to respond to medication leading to total remission at this point in the therapy.
Expected Outcome:

Yes, it was expected after the response in step 2. The goal advances from reduction of signs to response of more than 50% after four weeks of taking the drug, and the final was remission. The outcome was expected to be on a progressive trajectory after the response.

Conclusion with Ethical considerations

The ethics of prescribing medication in every part of medical care is a gold standard that should be incorporated when working with pediatric patients and their families. One such practice is informed consent and how it is disseminated to the child and parents. The components of this information need to clear before proceeding, with Clarifications such as “anticipated risks, benefits, and alternatives (Neville et al., 2014). Vitiello (2012) added to the discussion that children that are younger than 14 are usually not able to consent to treatment, but these parameters of the age of consent differ from states or countries.

“They can’t give legitimate consent for treatment, which must originate from their folks. The endorsing clinician has to educate the guardians regarding the normal advantages and dangers of the prescription” (Vitiello, 2012, p.12). Furthermore, if the drug is an experimental investigation, the parent and the kid (if mature enough), ought to have data on the condition of the examination (Neville et al., 2014). Besides, through the educated assent, the clinician may handle the issues of consistency and reaction by including the guardians. The guardians can screen and report these perceptions speedily (Vitiello, 2012).

In the guide that was given at the end of the exercise, there was more learning related to response, remission and careful titration of the current medication. The direction suggested was to continue Sertraline for four more weeks due to the “response.” Another recommendation is to increase the dose of Sertraline because by adding measured quantities of the drug will be appropriate until “remission” is achieved. Changing the drug to SNRI is not an option at this junction (Laureate Education, 2016e).

References

Laurate Education (2016e). Case study. An African American Child Suffering From Depression [Intereactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Magellan Health, Inc. (2013). Appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents: A clinical monograph. Retrieved from https://www.magellanhealth.com/media/445492/magellan-psychotropicdrugs-0203141.pdf

Maughan, B., Collishaw, S., & Stringaris, A. (2013). Depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(1), 35–40.

Rao, U. (2013). Biomarkers in pediatric depression. Depression and anxiety, 30(9), 787–791. http://doi.org/10.1002/da.22171

Neville, K. A., Frattarelli, D. A., Galinkin, J. L., Green, T. P., Johnson, T. D., Paul, I. M., & Van Den Anker, J. N. (2014). Off-label use of drugs in children. Pediatrics, 133(3), 563-567.

Poznanski, E., & Mokros, H. (1996). Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Vitiello B. (2012). Principles in using psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. In Rey JM (ed), IACAPAP e-Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions. Retrieved from http://iacapap.org/wp-content/uploads/A.7-