Orlandos nursing Theory

Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory

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Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory

Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory is the selected grand theory for this particular assignment. Ida Jean Orlando developed this theory which gives nurses an opportunity to create an efficient nursing care plan which is flexible and responsive to the needs of the patient (Tahmouresi & Adib-Hajbaghery, 2018). It emphasizes the need to provide immediate help to patients through their interaction with a healthcare provider regardless of their locality. This paper will focus on the theorist’s background, the description of the theory, evaluation as well as its application in the nursing practice.

Ida Jean Orlando Background

She was born in August 1926 and she devoted most of her life in school learning (Pinto, Martins, & Caldeira, 2016). She pursued a diploma in nursing from New York Medical College in 1947 and thereafter her bachelor’s degree in public health from St. John’s University, New York in the year 1951. She went ahead to pursue her masters in mental nursing and three years later she graduated from Columbia University. Orlando was one person with a diverse profession as she worked as a consultant, instructor, and physician in nursing. Her interest was in mental health and after attaining her master’s degree she managed to secure a job from Yale School of Nursing as an assistant professor (Pinto, Martins, & Caldeira, 2016). Efforts shown by Orlando granted her recognition from the government and she was presented with a state grant. Thereafter, she was appointed as an administrator of the Graduate initiative in mental health psychiatric nursing.

While serving as a director and an assistant professor, Orlando developed her nursing theory which was based on studies carried out at the institution (Sampoornam, 2015). It focused on assimilating the psychological health perceptions into a simple nursing syllabus. Orlando while serving as a medical nurse observed how nurses interacted with patients as well interactions between nurses and the impact it had on meeting the needs of the patient (Pinto, Martins, & Caldeira, 2016). She was impressed with nurses who gave more attention to the patients during their conversations and defined it as a good practice while on the other hand, he associated poor nursing practice to nurses who gave more attention to recording whatever the patient is saying rather than observing his/her instant oral and non-oral behavior. These observations guided the theorist in developing the nursing theory that was. This theory was published in 1961.

References to The Past and Present Works/Phenomenon of Concern

In the present-day, Orlando’s nursing theory is still reflected on considered as one of the most efficient theories (Dobson, 2017). It is examined by students in nursing schools as well as being utilized in other fields of research. Moreover, it has been interpreted and transcribed into various languages and distributed across the globe. Orlando paid attention to the relationship between a nurse and a patient in regard to the nursing practice. The word “Health” is not specified in her theory though it entails it. Therefore, the objective of satisfying the needs of a patient at the end of the day is determined by the interaction between a patient and his/her nurse (Ortiz, 2018). In addition, the patient should feel relaxed in order to express herself well while communicating with the nurse to make this objective efficient.

Theory Description

Orlando’s theory emphasizes the mutual association between the patients and the nurses (Tahmouresi & Adib-Hajbaghery, 2018). It was founded on the basis of inductive reasoning and this is clearly shown by the study carried out by Orlando. She did observations from interactions of about 2000 individuals who were nurses and patients. At the end of her study, she divided the outcome into two separate groups and to further give sufficient evidence to support her findings, a different study was done at McLean Hospital. In the course of the research, uninterrupted recordings were examined and it was found to be between nurses and their patients. Besides that, recordings of interactions among patients seeking care were also found. Therefore, inductive reasoning was clearly depicted in the illustration above.

The Major Concepts

Human concept is used by Orlando in her theory as she puts a lot of concentration on the vibrant nature of the relationships that exist between a patient and a nurse (Bender, 2018). Operationally, she considers that in nursing practice human beings in distress should be the center of focus. Health is not one of her major concerns but the need to address helplessness and vulnerability that needs care. Furthermore, another concept is nursing which she views as a self-determining practice founded on the need to offer help to a human who is in distress (Bender, 2018). Operationally, in order for one to be in a position to offer help, he/she needs to study and undergo appropriate training. Immediacy is another concept which is more of an internal response (Bender, 2018). Operationally, measures should be put in place in the nursing practice to cater for emergencies. For example, in a case where a woman delivers in a car, a well-trained nurse will be in a position to offer help quickly without too much interaction.

The need is another main concept that Orlando uses in her theory (Dobson, 2017). It is a necessity that a patient has and when provided to him, he will feel better hence improving his general well-being. She further states that individuals who are in a position to satisfy their own needs do not need any assistance while on the other hand individuals who are unable to take care of themselves need care and as result create the foundation upon which this theory depends on. There exists a relationship between the different main concepts that is, human, nursing, need, and immediacy. The need concept creates a greater connection with the nursing concept (Dobson, 2017). The needs of a patient in distress are meet by a nurse who provides care from their interaction together. Human concept and nursing concept are fairly symbiotic. Meanwhile, the concept of immediacy is relying on the level of interaction. Immediacy is not among the main concepts of Orlando’s theory.

The concepts in Orlando’s theory are defined explicitly and founded on the concept of the relationship between a nurse and a patient (Gaudet & Howett, 2018). The theory suggests that a person who is in a helpless situation has needs that Consistency is clearly evident in the three concepts and well elaborated in Orlando’s theory. However, in the present age, some cases may deter achieving the desired level of interaction between health providers and patients such as a coma. A nurse will not be in a position to communicate with a patient in a coma but he/she should provide the necessary care in regard to the condition of the patient.

Evaluation of Orlando’s Theory

The assumptions associated with Orlando’s Theory as discussed below:

A person refers to the receiver of care that is of high quality (Bender, 2018). The kind of care provided could be physical, mental and spiritual. This metaparadigm is addressed by looking at it as a person. In Orlando’s theory, care is needed by the patient and failure to provide the proper care by the nurse results in helplessness on the side of the patient. A person could also refer to an individual, society, or family. However, in Orlando’s theory she the person in question is only the patient and without the mention of any society. The environment is another metaparadigm that refers to conditions that could affect the patient either internally or externally (Bender, 2018). Patients who are restricted by their location to access care develop a negative response towards the environment. Orlando in her theory mentions the environment slightly.

  1. Each patient has a unique personality and diverse in the way they respond. Individuals show different behavior when conversing with a health practitioner.
  2. Patients tend to be weak and are sometimes uncertain whether to seek help from others. Therefore, help is needed during communication in order to find out the kind of help they need.
  3. It is usually disturbing when a patient does not receive the appropriate care at a time of distress making him/her feel weak.
  4. Nursing is like the kind of care a mother gives to her baby. A mother would strive to give the best care to her child to make her comfortable.
  5. Nursing profession entails dealing with health, individuals, and environment
  6. The relationship that exists between a nurse and a patient is vigorous where the responses are determined by both parties.
  7. All the relevant observations seen directly from the interaction with the patient is very useful satisfying the needs of the patient at that particular minute.
  8. Nurses show a lot of concern to the needs that the patient is unable to satisfy by herself.
  9. People have the tendency to be secretive concerning their necessities, opinion, and judgments
  10. The Four Metaparadigms Concepts of Nursing

Health is another concept that refers to the general wellness of an individual (Sampoornam, 2015). The aim of a nurse is to define and satisfy the needs of the patient by getting rid of distress by way of observing and listening. Orlando does not mention the term health in her theory but replaces it with providing care to avoid helplessness. Finally, the last metaparadigm is nursing itself (Bender, 2018). Nurses help patients understand the observations they have seen directly through interaction and give a validated examination. Nurses are responsive to patients who suffer any kind of distress. Humans tend to have their own meanings in regard to their behavior but only a nurse can give the correct diagnosis.

Clarity in Orlando’s Theory

This can be well addressed by looking at the strengths and weaknesses of Orlando’s theory. The belief by Orlando that nursing practice should be made independent makes it stand out (Pinto, Martins, & Caldeira, 2016). Orlando’s theory has made it possible for nurses and other health practitioners to make the appropriate diagnosis by making observations immediately while interacting with the patient. The theory has ensured put in place measures that allow nurses to check the responses of the patient in time (Gaudet & Howett, 2018). Moreover, it has put in place guidelines to be used by the nurse when evaluating the results of a patient.

In today’s setting, if the theory is integrated into the nursing profession, there would be a possibility to treat patients individually and they will also take an active role in their general well-being. On the other hand, Orlando’s theory has limitations such as the need to have a high level of interaction between a nurse and a patient (Gaudet & Howett, 2018). Chances of achieving dedicated care are quite difficult and secondly, Orlando’s theory does not come out strongly in allowing the fundamental purpose of a nursing career as well as demonstrating the dedication of an organization to public welfare.

General Application of Orlando’s Theory

Orlando’s theory stands out from the rest of the theories as it has raised the standard of care given to patients by putting a lot of emphasis in a nurse-patient relationship (Orlando, Travelbee, & Peplau, 2015). This theory has made it possible for nurses to give a proper diagnosis to patients by eliminating errors through proper guidelines given in the theory. The theory has made it possible for nurses to observe instant reactions of patients and provide care to patients in distress from the observed reactions. A good example of where this theory is applicable is when an accident occurs. The victims of the incident would cry for help and the nurse will provide care to them by asking them where they feel the pain. The level of pain can be ascertained by the nurse through interaction with the patient in agony.

Application of Orlando’s Theory in Nursing Practice

This theory is of great importance in the nursing profession especially in situations that need immediate care (Ortiz, 2018). This is because a person in a helpless situation will be able to get help from a nurse by way of interaction and the nurse will examine the reactions before drawing conclusions. On the other hand, this theory may not be applicable when giving care that is of a long-term nature (Dobson, 2017). The reason is that it relies on the interaction between a nurse and a patient. Patients in situations such as a coma are unable to communicate with a nurse. This theory has been of great help to nurses studying in various institutions as it gives guidelines on how to handle and interact with patients. The therapeutic goal of nursing can be achieved when this theory is well understood by nurses and patients will be a position to participate in their care and therapy.


Overall, Orlando’s theory puts a lot of emphasis on nurse-patient interaction in providing care. The theorist goal was to clearly define the purpose of nursing. It’s a simple theory that is applicable in all aspects of nursing practice. In addition, the theory does not restrict nurses to apply other useful theories in the process of providing care to a patient. It draws its strength from the fact that it enables practitioners to provide care timely. In the present age, the theory is still efficient when providing care and has greatly impacted the manner in which care is given to patients.


Bender, M. (2018). Re‐conceptualizing the nursing metaparadigm: Articulating the philosophical ontology of the nursing discipline that orients inquiry and practice. Nursing inquiry, 25(3), 122-125.

Dobson, J. (2017). Dame Cicely Saunders-an inspirational nursing theorist. Cancer Nursing Practice, 16(7), 29-31.

Gaudet, C., & Howett, M. (2018). Communication and Technology: Ida Orlando’s Theory Applied. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(4), 369-373.

Orlando, I. J., Travelbee, J., & Peplau, H. (2015). Nurse-Patient Relationship Theories. Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice, 8(5),60-67.

Ortiz, M. R. (2018). Patient-Centered Care: Nursing Knowledge and Policy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(3), 291-295.

Pinto, S., Martins, J. C., & Caldeira, S. (2016). A systematic literature review toward the characterization of comfort. Holistic nursing practice, 30(1), 14-24.

Sampoornam, W. (2015). Nursing process and Orlando process discipline-A case scenario. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 5(2), 210-212.

Tahmouresi, M., & Adib-Hajbaghery, M. (2018). Nurse-patient relationship based on the Imogene king’s theory of goal attainment. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 7(3), 141-144.

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