PHIL 200 Intro to Ethics Unit 4

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Intro to Ethics – PHIL 200

Unit 4

Unit 4 Challenge 1

Which of the following best defines virtue-based ethics?

Answer: An ethical theory that emphasizes moral character over principles.
A theory of ethics that asserts that actions reveal and reinforce personal characteristics

Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics.

Answer: Actions are evaluated based on how the action reveals the actor’s character.

Jean lies to her boss about not feeling well so she can stay home and watch her favorite shows.
How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action?

Answer: Impermissible

Laura wears a lot of green because it nicely compliments her red hair.
How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action?

Answer: Neutral

Kevin reads for 30 minutes every afternoon to improve his intellect.
How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action?

Answer: Obligatory

Lucy overheard her parents talking about her beloved Uncle Paul and was shocked to learn that he had been arrested that day.
“What?” she shouted, betraying her secret listening spot beneath the dining room table. “What?”
Lucy’s mother frowned, but quickly reassured her daughter. “He was protesting the new oil pipeline outside of town, dear. Typical Paul. He’ll be fine.”
According to virtue-based ethics, Paul’s act of protest is evaluated based on how his action reveals __________ and is considered permissible because it demonstrates his commitment to protecting the Earth.

Answer: character

PJ is student-teaching in an elementary school, and her roommate, Maya, is student-teaching at a different elementary school. At night in their apartment, they both work on lesson plans as well as their required college coursework. Maya is struggling with aligning standards to her lesson plans and asks PJ to help her understand the process. PJ wants to be more successful than Maya, so she lies and tells her roommate that she does not have time to help her.
According to virtue-based ethics, PJ’s refusal to help her roommate is evaluated based on how her action reveals character.
The refusal is considered impermissible because it demonstrates the cultivation of a(n) __________.

Answer: vice

Roger dashed into his burning house to retrieve some objects of sentimental value, and the doorway collapsed behind him. Firefighters were forced to follow and pull him from the inferno. Roger’s wife thanked her husband for his courage in entering the burning house, but the fire chief reprimanded him for putting firefighters in danger. He called Roger’s act reckless and foolish.
According to virtue-based ethics, Roger’s action is evaluated based on how it reveals character. It is difficult to determine how the action informs Roger’s character.
Therefore, the action has __________ results.

Answer: ambiguous

Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics?

Answer: Ryan is looking for an ethical system that focuses on what kind of a person he is.
Trent is looking for an ethical system that is about cultivating the best version of himself.
Sadie is looking for an ethical system that focuses on being good, not just on doing good things.

Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics?

Answer: It can be unclear how to develop certain virtues.
There isn’t a clear list of virtues.
It can be tough to distinguish between feelings and virtues.

Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue?

Answer: Brian really loves his mother’s cooking and overeats every time she cooks for him.
Maggie wears the same clothes and drives the same car as her sister because she envies her sister’s lifestyle.

A former candidate for public office is asked about a generous donation he had made to a local charity.
The candidate stated, “I made that donation when I was running for office last year because, you know, politicians are supposed to do that sort of thing. But to be honest, I would get that money back if I could.”
How might a virtue ethicist evaluate the politician’s action in donating the money?

Answer: The donation revealed the candidate acted with the vice of insincerity.

Unit 4 Challenge 2

The ethical position that emphasizes an action as an expression of the type of person you are is __________.

Answer: virtue-based ethics

Consequentialism, deontology, and character ethics evaluate actions differently.
Select the basis for moral value used by character ethics.

Answer: Kantian ethics.
A quality or trait

Three people of differing ethical positions witness a child stealing candy from a store. One observer remarks, “What a greedy little kid!”
The speaker is most likely a __________.

Answer: character ethicist

Choose the statement that exemplifies deonotology.

Answer: Donating to charity is good because we have an obligation to help the poor.

Choose the statement that exemplifies character ethics.

Answer: Telling the truth is good because everyone should be honest.

“I don’t give money to beggars because when I was young, my dad told me they’re all drug addicts who just want my money for more drugs.”
Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation?

Answer: Upbringing

“I work security at a grocery store to prevent people from stealing food. Every now and then when the checkout lines are too long, I take a snack without paying for it.”
Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation?

Answer: Self-interest

Select the statement that reveals familiarity as a source of bias in ethical evaluation.

Answer: I think Middle Eastern women’s clothing is oppressive because it is so different from the Western clothing that I’m used to.

Which of the following statements displays the speaker’s unfair bias?

Answer: “I rejected an offer on my house because the buyer had too many children.”
“I’m voting for Katie for student body president because she’s friends with my older sister.”
“I hired Walt to be the new VP of Learning because he and I belong to the same political party.”

Carlie believes that every person should demonstrate courage when given the opportunity. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with her belief?

Answer: Carlie takes the long way to the bathroom because she is intimidated by her boss, whose office is along the short way.

Bennet believes that every person should stick with what they start.
Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief?

Answer: Bennet quits piano lessons because his skill isn’t improving fast enough.

Ainsley believes that every person should have to work hard to get ahead.
Which of the following actions is inconsistent with her belief?

Answer: Ainsley leaves her children a large inheritance that they can live off of for the rest of their lives.

Unit 4 Challenge 3

“Capital punishment is morally acceptable, because the Torah says certain crimes are to be punished with execution.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Divine command theory

“Capital punishment is morally wrong because it makes me feel uneasy.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Egoism

“Capital punishment is morally acceptable because a recent study found that 54% of Americans are in favor of it.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Conventionalism

“It would have been morally acceptable for Hitler’s mother to have an abortion, since Hitler was responsible for countless deaths.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Utilitarianism

“Abortion is morally wrong, since it is a violation of the fetus’ humanity.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Kantian deontology

“Abortion is morally wrong because it demonstrates a lack of responsibility.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Virtue-based ethics

“Charity is not obligatory in societies that value self-reliance.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Conventionalism

“I earned my money; the beggars on the street did not.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Egoism

“The accumulation of wealth is morally wrong because Jesus said, ‘Woe to you that are rich’ in Luke 6:24.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Divine command theory

“It is morally wrong to refrain from eating meat because humans are meant to, as evidenced by our teeth and digestive system.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Kantian deontology

“Eating meat is morally acceptable if a person is comfortable with it and likes the taste.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Egoism

“Farming and killing animals is morally acceptable since meat, milk, and other animal products help human society flourish.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Utilitarianism

Unit 4 Milestone

“Treating animals inhumanely is morally wrong because it shows insensitivity on the part of the farmer.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Virtue-based ethics

Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics?

Answer: Two people might disagree on whether something is a virtue.

Tom passed the same homeless person each day as he walked to work. The homeless person never asked for money, but one day Tom stops and hands the man a $10 bill.
According to virtue-based ethics, Tom’s action is unethical if he __________.

Answer: gives the man money out of a sense of superiority

“Capital punishment is morally wrong because killing people is always wrong, no matter what.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Kantian deontology

“Abortion is morally wrong because it is murder, and murder is forbidden in the Bible.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Divine command theory

Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics?

Answer: Abner is looking for an ethical system that is about more than just doing good.

“People who are generous help those in need however they can.”
To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing?

Answer: Virtue-based ethics

Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue?

Answer: Carol gives a homeless man $10 to move away from her office building.

Select the statement that reveals upbringing as a source of bias in ethical evaluation.

Answer: I never talk back to the teacher because, as a child, my parents taught me to respect educators.

Natalie helps her brother move into his new home.
How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action?

Answer: Obligatory

Choose the true statement about virtue-based ethics.

Answer: According to the principles of virtue-based ethics, character is more important than actions.

The ethical position that evaluates the morality of an action solely on the results of that action is __________.

Answer: consequentialism

Which of the following statements displays the speaker’s unfair bias?

Answer: “We’re accepting Kim to our college because her parents are big donors.”

Choose the statement that exemplifies consequentialism.

Answer: Lying is impermissible because it causes others to mistrust you.

Derreck believes that every person should keep his or her word.
Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief?

Answer: Derreck had promised his daughter a puppy if she got straight As, but he makes up a new condition after the fact so he doesn’t have to fulfill the promise.




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