Introduction to Ethics Milestone 1


An argument is strong and the conclusion is true, but both premises are false. 

Which of the following terms best describes the argument?






Evaluating an Argument


Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy?

Philosophy improves critical thinking skills.

Philosophy makes everyone’s opinion equal.

Philosophy more easily explains social problems.

Philosophy harnesses passion to reveal truths.


Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics


Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who’s been asked for money on the street?

Have I given money to beggars before?

Is giving money the best way to help?

Do I have cash on me right now?

What is the beggar’s race?


Actions and Events


Consider the following argument: 

(1) I should get a raise (2) because I complete all my projects prior to the deadline, (3) I arrive at work early and stay late, (4) and I always receive positive comments on my work.

Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion?






Premises and Conclusions


Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient’s life. 

Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done?

Advance a thesis and justification

Identify positions on the question

Specify your question

Evaluate positions


The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry


Which of the following is a weak inductive argument?

Krista’s favorite composer is Tchaikovsky. Jason also likes Tchaikovsky. Jason and Krista probably have a lot in common.

People who like wine think they’re a big deal. Aaron thinks he’s a big deal, so he must like wine.

Most nurses are good people. Andrew is a nurse. Andrew is probably a good person.

Things that are blue are sad. The sky is blue, so it must be sad.


Evaluating the Structure of an Argument


Jerome conducts a survey to see how many of his neighbors believe they have a moral duty to report suspicious activity to the police. He finds that 8 in 10 believe they have such a duty. 

Which branch of ethics do the results of Jerome’s survey represent?

Descriptive ethics


Normative ethics


Branches of Ethics


Because she is a teacher who works with children, Yuki is required by law to report suspected abuse. One day a student says that his dad frequently hits him after having a drink. Despite the boy’s insistence that it’s a secret, Yuki informs the school office, which calls the authorities. 

Yuki’s decision constitutes a(n) __________ action.






The Evaluation of Actions


Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics.

Select the example related to law.

Kendra neglects to RSVP to an invitation to a close friend’s small wedding.

Beth approves of same-sex marriage, but her mother says it is a sin.

Don masks his income to avoid paying income taxes for twenty years.

Grandpa always chews with his mouth open at family gatherings.


Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics


What is the goal of philosophy?

To justify beliefs

To pursue truth

To persuade others

To gain self-knowledge


Introduction to Philosophy


Which of the following is an inductive argument?

Bruce is not feeling well. If Bruce is ill, he will not be able to attend classes today. Therefore, Bruce will not attend classes today.

Michael and Laura and their two children make a family of four. Michael and Laura have blond hair. Their children have blond hair, too. Thus, all members of the family have blond hair.

My new cell phone charges to full capacity in 30 minutes. My best friend’s new cell phone does the same thing, and so does my sister’s. It follows that all new cell phones recharge in 30 minutes.

There are seven employees that are on assignment today. There are two employees that are in the office. There are no other employees. Therefore, there are nine employees.


Deductive and Inductive Inference


Which of the following statements reflects subjectivism?

Dennis says that morality depends on the situation.

Dennis says that morality is dictated by a person’s culture.

Dennis says that morality is a personal choice.

Dennis says that morality is universal.


Categorizing Ethical Theories


Which of the following is a philosophical question?

What is the capital of the United States?

Can one sport be objectively better than another?

When was the first World Series played?

How many people live in poverty in the world?


Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry


Which of the following statements is true of ethics?

Ethical behavior is restricted to professional contexts.

The goal of ethics is to justify your own behavior.

Ethics is concerned with right and wrong.

The good and the bad are always self-evident.


Introduction to Philosophical Ethics


Which of the following is an argument?

If I don’t go out tonight, I won’t be crabby tomorrow.

Everyone should try learning an instrument at some point.

There’s not a cloud in the sky today, so you should wear sunscreen if you go outside.

My coworkers are all eating lunch. I’m not eating lunch, though.


Introduction to Arguments