PS 440 Unit 08 Assignment Patient Portfolio

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Unit 8 Patient Portfolio

PS:440 Abnormal Psychology

Unit 8 Assignment

Part 1: Patient’s Background
Patient’s Name Ellis
Disorder Name Substance Use
List of diagnostic criteria that the patient meets (based on the DSM-5) A minimum of 2-3 criteria is required for a mild substance use disorder diagnosis, while 4-5 is moderate, and 6-7 is severe (APA, 2013). Opioid Use Disorder is specified instead of Substance Use Disorder, if opioids are the drug of abuse. Note: A printable checklist version is linked belowTaking the opioid in larger amounts and for longer than intendedWanting to cut down or quit but not being able to do itSpending a lot of time obtaining the opioidCraving or a strong desire to use opioidsRepeatedly unable to carry out major obligations at work, school, or home due to opioid useContinued use despite persistent or recurring social or interpersonal problems caused or made worse by opioid useStopping or reducing important social, occupational, or recreational activities due to opioid useRecurrent use of opioids in physically hazardous situationsConsistent use of opioids despite acknowledgment of persistent or recurrent physical or psychological difficulties from using opioids*Tolerance as defined by either a need for markedly increased amounts to achieve intoxication or desired effect or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount. (Does not apply for diminished effect when used appropriately under medical supervision)*Withdrawal manifesting as either characteristic syndrome or the substance is used to avoid withdrawal (Does not apply when used appropriately under medical supervision)*This criterion is not considered to be met for those individuals taking opioids solely under appropriate medical supervision.
Part 2: Psychological ApproachSelect a psychological theory from the course textbook (chose either a cognitive or behavioral theory. Refer to the textbook or an academic source to explain the theory. Next, apply the theory by explaining how the individual’s mental disorder may have developed according to the theory. (Approximately 225 words)
Psychodynamic Perspective: “Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life. Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences” (S.M.,2007).Ellis’s childhood of seeing his father drink and his mother’s blind acceptance of this contributed to his later thinking that doing drugs was ok and in him thinking this way he tried what was readily available in his community and started using it because of its availability. His use of heroin then spiraled out of control because of his childhood and the fact that his parents made him think by their actions and words that his actions were ok. Not letting him know they weren’t, affected him for his early years and would then affect him later when he was married and had children. “Our behavior and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in our childhood experiences” (S.M.,2007). His upbringing and the things his parents allowed him to see and experience had a large impact on his life as an adult and the choices he made concerning his use of heroin. He let it overtake his life as his father had before him with alcohol and his acceptance of his early use of it.
Part 3: Biological ApproachSelect a theory from the biological approach from the course textbook (Choose either the genetic or neurological influence). Refer to the textbook or an academic source to explain the theory. Next, apply the theory by explaining how the individual or character’s mental disorder may have developed according to the theory (Approximately 225 words)
“Behavioral geneticists have concluded that specific genes or small groups of genes may ultimately be found to be associated with certain psychological disorders. But much of the evidence suggests that contributions to psychological disorders come from many genes, each having a relatively small effect. Advances in gene mapping, molecular genetics, and linkage studies help us track the genes implicated in various disorders” (S.M.,2007). Ellis’s father is an alcoholic he passed his genes down to his son. The genes he passed to him gave him the predisposition of becoming an alcoholic or being a drug user. His mother also passed genes to Ellis and her acceptance or turning a blind eye to her husband’s use of alcohol made it even easier for him to become addicted to heroin. It states on the website Simply Psychology “The biological approach believes us to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology. It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological and thus physical point of view. Therefore, all that is psychological is first physiological. All thoughts, feeling & behavior ultimately have a biological cause” (S.M., 2007). It states in our book that “Genes influence our bodies and behavior through a series of steps that produce proteins. Although all cells contain our entire genetic structure, only a small proportion of the genes in any one cell are “turned on” or expressed. In this way, cells become specialized. Environmental factors, in the form of social and cultural influences, can determine whether genes are “turned on.” To take one example, in studies with rat pups, researchers have found that the absence of normal maternal behavior of “licking and grooming” prevents the genetic expression of a glucocorticoid receptor that modulates stress hormones” (V.D.& D.B., 2012).
Part 4: Sociocultural ApproachSelect a theory from the social and cultural or interpersonal relationship approach from the course textbook. Refer to the textbook or an academic source to explain the theory. Next, apply the theory by explaining how the individual or character’s mental disorder may have developed according to this theory (Approximately 225 words)
“Some people think interpersonal relationships give meaning to life and that people who have something to live for can overcome physical deficiencies and even delay death. It is also possible that social relationships facilitate health-promoting behaviors, such as restraint in the use of alcohol and drugs, getting proper sleep, and seeking appropriate health care” (V.D.&D.B., 2012). Ellis grew up around an alcoholic father who thought it was ok that his young son to get drunk and his mother didn’t voice an opinion she just ignored his behavior. The way they lived affected him just as much as the other elements that contributed to him making wrong choices.
Part 5:1 TreatmentDiscuss what types of medical approaches (e.g., ECT, prescription medications, psychosurgery, or current medical devises) you recommend for the patient based on studies showing its effectiveness in treating the disorder. (Approximately 75 words)
“Methadone is a slow acting opioid agonist. Methadone is taken orally so that it reaches the brain slowly, dampening the “high” that occurs with other routes of administration while preventing withdrawal symptom. Methadone has been used since the 1960s to treat heroin addiction and is still an excellent treatment option, particularly for patients who do not respond well to other medications. Methadone is only available through approved outpatient treatment programs, where it is dispensed to patients on-a-daily basis” (NIH, 2014).
Part 5:2 TreatmentCompare and contrast the side effects the patient may experience from the selected type of medical approach and support what benefits the treatment may have on the brain chemistry or neurotransmitter activity. (Approximately 75 words)
Methadone is an opiate agonist that is often given as a heroin substitute. However, when users develop a tolerance for methadone it loses its analgesic and sedative qualities. Because heroin and methadone have cross-tolerance, meaning they act on the same neurotransmitter receptors, a heroin addict who takes methadone may become addicted to the methadone instead, but this is not always the case. Research suggests that when addicts combine methadone with counseling, many reduce their use of heroin and engage in less criminal activity. A newer agonist— buprenorphine—blocks the effects of opiates and seems to encourage better compliance than would a non-opiate or opiate antagonist” (V.D.&D.B., 2012).
Part 5:3 TreatmentDiscuss what psychotherapy options you recommend for the patient (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or exposure therapy). Do this by explaining how the chosen form of psychotherapy would work and specifically how the patient would benefit from it. (Approximately 100 words)
The therapy that I recommend for Ellis would be a combination of family and group therapy. His family is as much a victim of his use of heroin as he is. He will need the support of a healthy family and I also think the support of others who have gone through or are going through the same thing as he is will be a great support system. He may lose his wife because of their issues with his heroin use. He will also need assistance medically in fighting his use of heroin and I recommend Methadone because of its success in treating heroin use.
Part 5:4 TreatmentProvide both short and long-term goals for the patient’s treatment plan. Include accomplishments or behavioral changes you want to see in the patient. (Approximately 75 words)
The short-term goals for Ellis are getting himself and his family into treatment and counseling and not using for three months. He will also go back to work and show them that he can be a productive member of their team. The long-term goals for Ellis will be to be healthy and no longer have the need for Methadone. To have a healthy relationship with his family, his wife and kids. Have friends who don’t expect him to use to be there friend even if it means disassociating with the old friends.
Part 6: ConclusionDefend which of the approaches can best explain the development (or cause) of the case study’s mental disorder and why your chosen treatment plan would be the most beneficial plan for the patient. (Approximately 150 words)
Behavioral geneticists have concluded that specific genes or small groups of genes may ultimately be found to be associated with certain psychological disorders. But much of the evidence suggests that contributions to psychological disorders come from many genes, each having a relatively small effect. Advances in gene mapping, molecular genetics, and linkage studies help us track the genes implicated in various disorders” (S.M.,2007). Genetics is why Ellis was set up to use Heroin, his father’s use of alcohol was something that was passed down to him through genetics. Th Treatment I chose for him is the best treatment for him. It has been proven on hundreds of heroin users before him. This combination of medication, and counseling has set him up for nothing but success.

References

Durand, V. M., Barlow, D. H. (01/2012). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. [Kaplan]. Retrieved from https://kaplan.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781285708263/https://kaplan.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781285708263/

DSM-5 (2014) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [Kaplan Library] Retrieved from http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org.lib.kaplan.edu/

http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_capuzzi_counseling_3/4/1171/299948.cw/index.html

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Psychology Perspectives. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2014) What are the treatments for heroin addiction? [NIH] Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/heroin/what-are-treatments-heroin-addiction




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