PSY 330: Theories of Personality
Perspective Psychodynamic theory, which was primarily formulated by Sigmund Freud, suggests that we act by instincts that are sexual and aggressive. This perspective suggests that we are always in conflict with ourselves and society. The theory posts that the rationale for all adult actions is related to our parents. Most importantly, the theory argues that the presence and exact nature of our motives (i.e., why we act in specific ways) is unknown to us. I expect that you may be able to properly grasp each pattern after reading the paper I have researched. Each subject is reviewed as a guide that lets you understand each section and specifics to ensure that each model breakdown is explained step by step (Busch, 2019).
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic personality theory suggests that only the relationships between three areas of the subconscious are the product of human behavior. They are conscience, ego, and superego. This principle, recognized as Freud’s conceptual principle, puts the considerable focus in the form of actions and Personality on the role of potential psychological confrontation.
Complex connections between these primary mental sections go across five distinctive psychosexual developmental phases. However, Freud’s theories have subsequently met with controversy throughout the last century, partially for his peculiar emphasis on sexuality as the primary catalyst for the creation of human identity. Freud has paid little attention to the influence of the environment, sociology, and culture in his particular focus on the nature of the human mind. His hypotheses were highly pathology-focused, largely ignoring “natural,” healthy functioning. He was also blamed for his narrow-minded view of human sexuality, ignoring other significant factors(.Levine., 2000)
Both psychotherapy methods discuss our perceived shortcomings. We have little understanding of our imaginative capacity, the nature of our actions, our daily mental condition, what motivates us, and the other influences that affect the choices we make and the ways we behave. Many practitioners, particularly those inspired by Freud and Jung, talk of the ‘unconscious,’ providing the mistaken illusion that it is a field of action. Others, due to Freudian theory’s details, reject the term ‘unconscious.’ However, the reach of everyday awareness is so limited, and such is the range of unconscious factors that somehow these limitations must make aware, sometimes in metaphor, sometimes explicitly. That is the most trenchant criticism of the psychodynamic method in the study of human behavior. Many of Freud’s ideas are contextual and are also impossible to check theoretically. The major problem is that research is done based on a detailed study of one person, and, in Freud’s opinion, the bulk of these people are women of the middle ages. The general public considers it impossible to generalize.
The relation between the child and the mother is neurobiological. When paired, they may be bound to one another, which is often known as neuropeptide oxytocin. While analysts should use further work behind this matter, mentalization is a bio-compliance mechanism. I guess I like to believe that when I talk about the link between the mother and the infant, the mother still knows the saying is true. And if there’s no relation, how would a mother feel disconnected from her child and again feel positive about anything going wrong with her kid.
Paul Broca combined anthropology with medical and practical science, including neurology. During the 1850s, he developed aphasia, which influenced his vocabulary. In 1861, he was the first to demonstrate an autopsy that a speech impairment is connected with a specific location in the brain (today known as the Broca area). The finding of Broca has provided a renewed emphasis on the correlation between the psychological and the physical brain characteristics. Broca followed these experiments with the formation and implementation of at least twenty-seven instruments for measurements of the human body. The various contributions made by Broca to anthropology helped create a robust academic basis at a period when nature studies were known to be a somewhat mysterious discipline (Lecci, 2015).
Tan, Broca’s case study, had a city stroke suffered from his famous case analysis. He noticed Tan had trouble producing intelligible sentences, he could generate just a few syllables simultaneously, yet he could comprehend what was said to him. Broca indicated that the compromised part of Tan’s brain was responsible for organizing the required muscle movements. Tan, therefore, had difficulty with the development of voice. Post-mortem examining Tan’s mind in 1861 verified his stroke brain injury to a specific region of the brain, keeping the majority of his brains unaffected. This area is called the “Broca area.”Lecci, 2015)
Trait theory (also named dispositional theory) is an introduction to human behavior analysis. Trait theories are mainly interested in the study of traits, which can be described as repetitive behaviors of behavior, feeling, and emotion. According to this view, features are facets of Personality that are constant across time, vary through individuals (e.g., certain people are friendly while others are not), are reasonably persistent across circumstances, and affect behavior. Like nations, characteristics are more transitory arrangements. Components are what an individual has or doesn’t have for different meanings and frameworks (Lecci, 2015). However, certain variables, including extraversion versus introversion, are in distinction with each variable. There are two methods to characterization: as intrinsic explanatory effects, or as strictly concise summaries. The external causal concept says that characteristics affect our attitudes, causing us to do actions according to the aspect. However, traits as concise summaries are accounts of our behavior that do not seek to imply causality.
Before 1990, Eysenck’s theory and personality surveys (Eysenck 1996) were perhaps the most influential work on Personality and crime. He saw offense as usual and even moral, supposing that human beings are hedonistic, are looking for pleasure, and escape the pain. He believed illegal actions, such as theft, abuse, and vandalism, were substantially pleasurable or advantageous for the perpetrator. To understand why not everyone was a criminal, Eysenck proposed that conscience resisted the hedonist propensity to commit a crime, which is a reaction to anxiety built up in a cycle of conditioning from childhood (Lecci, 2015).
Extraversion/Neuroticism/ Psychoticism (three dimensions of Personality)
In the Eysenck theory, the criminals were those who had no stiff moral compasses, mainly since they are fundamentally weak. The three dimensions of Eysenck’s theory are temperament, extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and psychoticism (P). People with a high e are less sensitive because of their low cortical enthusiasm. Many with a top N condition are probably less successful because of the high level of rest of their anxiety. As N acts as a push, neurotic extraverts should also be particularly criminal because it confirms current behavioral patterns (Lecci, 2015).
Eysenck often speculated that others with high P appear to be perpetrators as their distinguishing psychotic symptoms (emotional coldness, low empathy, extreme aggression, and inhumanity) were typical of offenders. Eysenck also predicted The significance of the P-scale is ambiguous and is considered psychopathy. (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975).
Cognitive psychology is the empirical analysis of behavioral mechanisms such as “attention, usage of words, recollection, understanding, problem-solving, imagination, and thinking.” Most of the cognitive psychology research has organized into many other academic fields such as cognitive science and psychological analysis, namely educational psychology, social psychology, personality psycho study (Neisser, (1967).
Bruner has built a cornerstone for ground-breaking work in cognitive science as one of the most influential psychologists. He established that feeling and experience are dynamic mechanisms rather than inactive, performing a set of experience tests that presented a challenge for psychology to perceive the reaction of the individual to stimuli both externally and internally. Cognitive development’s apparent consequence is learning. From practice, the intelligent mind produces “simple coding schemes that enable us to move beyond data to fresh and potentially productive predictions” (Bruner, 1957, p. 234). Bruner expressed the opinion that children would adjust to their environments “recurrent regularities.” According to Bruner, the significant learning outcomes must include the capacity to adapt and to develop in an adult, besides formal education, through personal experiences (Neisser,1967).
Three Stages of Expression
After concentrating on these tasks, he shifted his attention and energy to research real information in the study of perception. In 1966, Bruner published his study on cognitive growth in adolescents, which revealed three stages of cognitive development communication. 1). Enactive process of information gained and processed primarily in the form of motor responses (from birth to age three). 2). The traditional period (3-8 years of age) when information is primarily gained and processed as visual pictures. It helps small learners to ‘read’ picture books (and computer icons) to decipher details while studying the language. 3). The symbolic stage (from 8 to 8), happens when information gained is mostly processed as terms, mathematical symbols, or other code-based structures of signs and symbols (Lecci, 2015).
We have covered four of the seven major psychological models that are considered frameworks for understanding personality. We utilized Freud’s psychodynamics theory because of his tremendous work in helping us to understand the developmental personality theory. I believed one of his greatest achievements was the unconscious/conscious theory and how we may not be aware of the power of our consciousness. In the field of neurobiological, I believed Braca’s approach to be the most critical in helping researchers comprehend how the brain can be affected by injury to the frontal lobe. His work opened the door to understanding how the mind works after trauma. With traits, we believed Hans Eysenck three dimensions of Eysenck’s theory are temperament, extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and psychoticism (P) showed researchers how personalities can be interchangeable. With cognitive psychology, we found Jerome Bruner to be the most influential researcher of his time in introducing us to the personality questionnaires, used in research and clinical analysis. Using these concepts to determine what we believe is the most useful and applicable can vary among psychologists. Each model has several theorists and numerous theories. And all are important for learning and growth in understanding personality.
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