Regulatory Behavior Paper

PSY/ 340

Regulatory Behavior Paper

The nervous system is in charge of receiving and relaying the information that is collected; it is also in charge of monitoring and responding to both the internal and the external changes that help to control and coordinate the body’s functions. The sensory stimuli is able to become more apparent with the help of a strong and productive nervous system; this would include any change in emotion, memory or the environment. Neurons are known as the messengers of the body; they are the nerve cells that send messages through the nervous system, while the nerve impulses send coded electrical signals from the neuron. The motor neurons carry the brain and spinal cord impulses, to the muscles and the glands, while the sensory neurons help carry impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and the spinal cord.

Cell bodies become helpers to the center part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and the majority of the cytoplasm. Dendrites are the extension from the neurons cell body that carries environmental impulses to the cell body. Neurons make connections with other neurons due to the Axon terminals. Axon terminals are tiny swellings in the neuron at the end of the axon, which helps to connect one neuron to the other. The outer covering of the neuron is known as the neurilemma. The neurilemma allows the nerve to regenerate itself if it becomes damaged. With threshold stimulus, only a small amount is required in order to activate a neuron. The receptors are the special sensory neurons from which the sense organ receives stimuli from the external environment; these are received through the ears, eyes and nose. The muscle of the gland, which brings about the coordinates response to a stimuli, is known as the effector. Synapses are shared connections in which impulses are passed from one cell to the other.

There are many occasions when one may act a certain way that may not be appropriate or acceptable; by society these strange behaviors may be perceived as abnormal behavior. The difference between fear and anxiety, is when fear is the result of a particular stimuli; all while anxiety can be more of a common feeling of dread towards the future. (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, panic disorders, acute stress disorder, general anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disorders due to medical conditions, and any other specific disorders can all be a result from excessive anxiety. In the continued study of generalized anxiety disorder, the feeling of fear and anxiety are a completely normal responses, but when those sensations are absent, chances of psychological dysfunction may occur. In addition, those who may be affected by GAD are likely to, “…fixate on perceived dangers and threats…overestimate the severity of the perceived danger, and drastically underestimate their ability to cope” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 147). These cognitive representations may lead one to anxiety. Finally, GAD may, “contribute to a wide variety of physical symptoms (such as dry mouth, nausea, or sweating) that may prevent them from pursuing or enjoying social relationship and new experiences” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 120).

Anxiety may be caused by some social relationships and experiencing something new that may initially be unknown to the person; these symptoms are physical and can cause one to meditate and determine their behavior. Like everyone, every day is different, and moods may fluctuate on a day to day basis; soon these feelings become as normal as the feeling of fear or anxiety. Most people’s moods may be caused by a negative event that may have taken place in the person’s life; some like to take the negativity and turn it into a positive one. However, others may experience it a little different. Some people who experience negativity their life may experience prolonged episodes of feeling down or prolonged episodes of feeling excessively happy; some may even have a combination of both (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Major depressive disorders may be a cause for mood instability; this would include: Cyclothymic disorder (CD), hypomanic episode, manic episode, bipolar disorder, substance induced mood disorder, dysthymic disorder, and mood disorders that are due to a general medical. Cyclothymic disorder can be described as a fine line between a bipolar diagnoses and normal mood fluctuations. In particular, CD may require, “less sever, but more constant, mood swings… [where] mood alternates between hypomanic highs and dysthymic lows (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 177). Even though it may t be unclear whether genetic make- up has any effect for the onset of cyclothymic disorder later in life, “…it has been suggested that cyclothymic mood would be a genetic- familial predisposition for bipolar II disorder” (Albayrak, Caykoylu, Kuloglu, 2007, p. 216). Ultimately, people who suffer on a day to day basis with mood disorders, have a tendency to, “…hold negative views about themselves, their worlds, and their futures” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p. 191).

The difference between your average mood fluctuations and a diagnosis of CD, would be that CD involves social and occupational impairment and functioning, as well as significant clinical distress (BehaveNet, 1997-2010, n.p.). CD has a tendency of worsening overtime, with 15-50% of those diagnosed with developing bipolar I and II disorder never see an improvement.

The thyroid and pituitary have glands that release hormones, these hormones dissolve through our body fluids and are then carried to wherever the body may need them. Testosterone and estrogen are the hormones that are responsible for many of our bodily functions, such as: metabolism, reproduction and growth. Our hormones also play a big role in the way or moods fluctuate. With heredity and hormones effecting human behavior, it is no wonder why everyone has their own religion, beliefs and attitude compared to others with different views; but the way we may react to a specific experience may be directly influenced by family history and hormones and mental health. Hereditary genes are not something we have control over. Genes are passed down from parent to child and so on. Hereditary genes and hormones play a big role in making someone different and unique; it can also impact the person’s mental health if there is a family history of mental health issues.

The endocrine glands release chemical substances called hormones that are carried throughout the body in the bloodstream (Morris, 2005). The endocrine system is made up of many different glands. Below the larynx we have the thyroid gland; this gland produces a main hormone known as thyroxin. Thyroxin is the hormone that helps to regulate the body’s metabolism. Within the thyroid gland are para-thyroids, which are tiny organs that control the amount of calcium and phosphates in the body (Morris, 2005). The brain, then has the glands known as the pineal glands. They produce and secrete a hormone called melatonin, which regulates “sleep ” wake cycles” (Pinker, 2002). Between the stomach and the small intestine, lies the pancreas. The pancreas helps to control the amount of sugar that is exposed into the blood stream; it does this by secreting two hormones known as insulin and glucagon. The two hormones help to regulate each other in order to produce a healthy sugar level through the body. The brains gland known as the pituitary is connects to the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland produces the biggest number of different hormones and has the widest range of effects on the body’s functions. (Pinker. 2002). Near the kidneys lies the adrenal glands; each has two parts to them. The two parts are broken up into the outer and the inner parts. The outer part is called the adrenal medulla and the outer layer is known as the adrenal cortex. These glands help the body react to stress (Morris, 2005).

Hormones make up a person’s functions and personality. Hormones start effecting humans when they reach puberty because the body starts going through physical and chemical changes (Pinker, 2002). At the time of puberty physical attributes become noticeable. The pituitary gland, ovaries, gonads, and pancreas are all responsible for releasing hormones (Clayman, 1993).

Overall, hormone production is produced through traits, and through conception these traits are received, thus making them hereditary. The brain has a big impact on how a person may behave, what they say, what they think and what they do. The brain is the master control mechanism for everything we do. The make-up of the human behavior is represented by the endocrine system’s physiology and its traits and genes. Cognitive disabilities (CD), visual impairments (VI), hearing impairments (HI), speech and language impairments (S/L), specific learning disabilities (SLD), and emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD), which lead to problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction that can exist with learning disabilities, as well with cultural differences, that can lead to language barriers, according to (Freiberg & Wicklund, 2003).


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