Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and its Components

Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and its Components

PSY350: Physiological Psychology (PSF1933A)

Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and its Components

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety issue that can happen following the experience or seeing of a traumatic event. A traumatic event is a hazardous occasion, for example, military combat, catastrophic events, terrorist events, genuine accidents, or physical or sexual assault encounters in adulthood or youth years. Most overcomers of injury come back to typical given a brief period. In any case, a few people will have pressure responses that don’t leave individually or may even deteriorate after some time. These people may develop PTSD (US Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019). I personally feel that one of my main reasons for choosing posttraumatic stress disorder as my choice of neuropsychological disorder for comprehensive analysis to reflect on is because my father is a war veteran that served in the Vietnam war. With this being the case, I have seen the various ways that he has been affected by PTSD, thus I would like to become more familiar with the disorder. In this paper I will briefly describe the etiology of PTSD, how PTSD can be a disorder caused by the environment and how genetics can play a part, as well as describe treatment methods.

Trauma and stressor-related disorders incorporate issues in which introduction to an awful or unpleasant event is recorded expressly as a symptomatic measure. These incorporate reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement issue, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intense stress disorder, and adjustment disorders. This mirrors the close connection between these diagnoses and disarranges in the encompassing sections on anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative issue. At times, manifestations can be surely known inside a fear or anxiety based setting. However, numerous people who have been presented to a traumatic or stressful event display a phenotype where, as opposed to tension or dread based manifestations, the most noticeable clinical qualities are anhedonic and dysphoric side effects, externalizing irate and forceful side effects, or dissociative side effects. Social disregard, which is the nonappearance of the caregiver producing satisfactory care during adolescence is an indicative prerequisite of both receptive emotional issues and disinhibited social commitment issue. Even though the two issues share a typical etiology, the former is communicated as a disguising issue with burdensome indications and pulled back conduct, while the latter is set apart by disinhibition and externalizing conduct (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Future etiology of PTSD has discovered research on the aversion of PTSD would profit by an increasingly explicit fuse of hypothetical records of PTSD into mediation improvement and testing. In addition, a large assortment of research in the zones of contemporary learning theory, data preparing, thought and emotion guideline, PTSD treatment, and psychobiology supports the advancement and testing of a few such programs. Testing these kinds of projects, in mix with proceeded with research on risk and resilience identified with post-traumatic stress, risk identification, and prevention program execution likely will propel the territory of PTSD prevention action just as our comprehension of the variables that outcome in post-traumatic stress issues (Feldner, Monson & Friedman, 2007).

PTSD is more common than we realize. 2.As indicated by the American Psychological Association, females are twice as liable to develop PTSD, experience a more drawn out term of post-traumatic side effects and show greater sensitivity to stimuli that help them to remember the injury. When PTSD side effects are left untreated it can have extraordinary mental well-being implications which can prompt physical health problems also, including headache pains, stomach issues and sexual dysfunction (APA, 2013). In the whole populace, an expected 6.8% of Americans will encounter PTSD sooner or later in their lives. Ladies (9.7%) are more than over two and a half times as likely as men (3.6%) to be stricken with PTSD. About 3.6% of U.S. grown-ups (5.2 million individuals) have PTSD over the span of a given year. This is just a small part of the individuals who have encountered at least one traumatic event. In individuals who have encountered an awful event, about 8% of men and 20% of ladies develop PTSD after a trauma and generally 30% of these people build up a ceaseless form of PTSD that proceeds all through their lifetime. The traumatic events regularly connected with PTSD for men are rape, exposure to combat, neglected as a child, and physical child abuse. The most horrible accidents for women are rape, sexual molestation, physical assault, being threatened with a weapon, and physical child abuse (US Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019). Studies have shown that PTSD should now be labeled as a Neuropsychological disorder. Various investigations demonstrate that introduction to a traumatic encounter drives the body to making changes in the cerebrum structure. The deficits that are seen in subjects with a PTSD diagnosis are indications of neurological character. In PTSD these neuropsychological adjustments brought about by antagonistic experience lead to an incredible emotional, physical and social decay and, subsequently, the patient’s way of life, conduct and social articulation are altered specifically in various ways also. The qualities of the neuropsychological issue are connected to the signs of the traumatic event, which influence a few factors such as the intensity of the disorder and prevalence of the disorder (Biomedical Research, 2017).

From a neurobiological perspective there are factors impacted by PTSD such as hippocampus. Looking at the first sMRI studies there is a remarkably smaller hippocampi in individuals that suffer from PTSD than trauma and non-trauma individuals without PTSD. The seriousness of PTSD side effects might be a significant factor in deciding impact sizes of PTSD-related hippocampal differences; investigations of adults with PTSD that neglected to recreate the finding of smaller hippocampal volumes for the most part utilized subjects with less extreme or less chronic ailment. When dealing with PTSD, the patients that fail to recall extinction learning is usually due to lower hippocampal activation. Putative brain-state shift can also be caused by PTSD. The development of PTSD may involve a shift in mind state from abnormal state handling of multimodal relevant and memory helper upgrades to a primitive amygdala-interceded development of time-locked tactile affiliations and articulation of the species-explicit barrier reaction. These neuroendocrine factors presumably interface in both counter-regulatory and synergistic manners that are probably going to impact PTSD risk, side effect profiles, seriousness, and capacity for recuperation. Therefore, giving conceivably exploitable pharmacological and epigenetic focuses for the advancement of new PTSD treatments (Pitman et al., 2012).

When it comes to PTSD, I already knew that lifestyle and environmental factors could play a part with individuals developing the disorder, but I did not know that genetics plays a part as well. From a genetics perspective, utilizing genome-wide genomic information, research has demonstrated that among European American females, 29% of the hazard for creating PTSD is affected by hereditary components, which is practically identical to that of other mental issue. Interestingly, men’s hereditary hazard for PTSD was significantly lower. The scientists discovered solid proof that individuals with higher hereditary hazard for a few mental issue—including schizophrenia, and to a lesser degree bipolar and major depressive disorder are additionally at higher hereditary hazard for developing PTSD after a traumatic type event (Harvard Chan School of Public Health, 2017). Also, from a genetic perspective, as indicated by the American Psychological Association, females are twice as liable to develop PTSD, experience a more drawn out term of post-traumatic side effects and show greater sensitivity to stimuli that help them to remember the injury. When PTSD side effects are left untreated it can have extraordinary mental well-being implications which can prompt physical health problems also, including headache pains, stomach issues and sexual dysfunction (APA, 2013). Lastly, from an environmental perspective, the suspicion that PTSD-related traumatic events are irregular marvels is unsupported. Among youthful grown-ups, those with less training, blacks, and those with high neuroticism and extroversion scores are almost certain than others to be presented to traumatic mishaps and are in this manner at more serious risk for PTSD (Breslau, Davis & Andreski, 1995).

The pathology of PTSD is interesting when it comes to the abnormities in regard to the nervous system structure and its functions. Stress protocols change the customary differentiation worked between the impacts of intense versus ceaseless stress. The outcomes demonstrate that exposure of stress confined to a length of minutes or hours may have long haul basic (dendrite atrophy/loss of spines), utilitarian (glutamate release/synaptic transmission and plasticity), and conduct (cognitive capacities) results. Stress-related changes recommend a component whereby intense stress influences the extended stress reaction and may add to disclose how constrained presentation to intense stress brings about pathogenesis of stress-related disorders, including PTSD. A total unique dismemberment of the short and long-term impacts of intense stress is required to get when and how the stress reaction (a physiological brain and body reaction) transforms into pathology-related maladaptive changes. A few short-and long haul useful and neuroarchitectural impacts prompted by intense footshock (FS) worry in glutamate neurotransmitters and hardware in prefrontal cortex (PFC), revealing additionally the quick transient pinnacle of corticosterone (CORT) during and directly after the stress protocol. The quick rise of glutamate discharge during and directly after FS stress is essentially interceded by the activity of CORT at synaptic receptors and by the expansion in the readily releasable pool (RRP) of glutamate in presynaptic terminals. The ensuing continued improvement of glutamate discharge during the initial 24 hours is joined by withdrawal of apical dendrites in infralimbic PFC, which was first estimated at 24 hours and afterward for up to about fourteen days. Specifically, intense inevitable pressure is known to build glutamate discharge/transmission in PFC, while various types of chronic stress have been appeared to diminish glutamate discharge/transmission in both PFC and hippocampus (HPC) (Musazzi, Tornese, Sala & Popoli, 2018). Indication repeat and escalation may happen because of reminders of the first trauma, progressing life stressors, or recently experienced horrendous mishaps. For more older people, declining well-being, intensifying cognitive functions, and social confinement may intensify PTSD symptoms (APA, 2013). People who relentlessly continue to encounter PTSD into older adulthood may express less indications of hyperarousal, avoidance, and pessimistic cognition and mood contrasted with more youthful adults with PTSD, in spite of the fact that adults that are exposed to trauma events later in life may show more evasion, hyperarousal, sleep issues, and crying spells than do more youthful adults presented to the equivalent trauma events. In more older people, the disorder is related with negative well-being observations, primary care use, and ideas of suicide (APA, 2013).

Whenever dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder there are methods of treatment that will be sought out. Not all methods of treatment are pharmaceutical, because there are multiple non-pharmaceutical forms of treatment for PTSD as well. Pharmaceutically, in 2004 the American Psychiatric Association distributed practice rules for patients with acute stress disorder and PTSD. These rules recognize selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as sertraline, paroxetine, and off-label fluoxetine as the medications of choice for patients with PTSD, for various reasons. They improve every one of the three PTSD indication bunches (re-encountering, evasion, and hyperarousal); they are viable for mental issue that much of the time happen with PTSD such as sadness, social fear, and obsessive-compulsive disorder; and they may lessen clinical symptoms such as suicidal, impulsive, and forceful behaviors that frequently complicate the administration of PTSD. Likewise, SSRIs are related with the less side effects (Alexander, 2012). Medicines can control the side effects of PTSD. Furthermore, the indication alleviation that prescription gives enables numerous individuals to take part more successfully in psychotherapy. A few antidepressants such as SSRIs and SNRIs (selective serotonin re-take-up inhibitors and selective norepinephrine re-take-up inhibitors), are regularly used to treat the center side effects of PTSD. They are utilized either alone or alongside psychotherapy or other various treatments (American Psychiatric Association, 2019). Non-pharmaceutically, specialists and other psychological well-being experts utilize different viable techniques to help individuals recoup from PTSD. Cognitive Processing Therapy centers around altering difficult negative feelings, (e.g., disgrace and guilt) and convictions, (e.g., “I have failed”; “the world is hazardous”) because of the trauma. Therapists help the individual face such upsetting recollections and feelings. Prolonged Exposure Therapy uses rehashed, detailed envisioning of the trauma or dynamic exposures to side effect “triggers” in a protected, controlled manner to enable an individual to face and deal with dread and misery and figure out how to adapt. For instance, computer generated reality programs have been utilized to help war veterans with PTSD re-experience the war zone in a controlled, restorative manner. Also, group therapy can be an option in which individuals that have suffered from similar traumatic events can come together in order to support each other. During the group therapy, each individual will help one another to know that they are not the only one that reacted to the event in the way that they reacted to help them from feeling alienated (American Psychiatric Association, 2019).

There are a few unique approaches that can be taken with regards to PTSD care providers when it comes to Veterans. PTSD experts furnish customary outpatient care to Veterans with PTSD in almost every medical center around the U.S. Likewise, unique residential (live-in) or inpatient care programs found in nearly every area of the U.S. help Veterans with serious PTSD symptoms who experience difficulty doing typical everyday exercises such as going to work. Also available are outpatient clinics (U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019). There are also constant future endeavors being made in order to help with the treatment of PTSD. Future bearings in PTSD treatment research incorporate recognizing approaches to upgrade compelling treatments including among specific populaces (e.g., military), further assessment of treatments that are “suggested” as opposed to “strongly suggested”, keeping people occupied with treatment (i.e., decreasing dropout), and deciding individual elements foreseeing reaction/non-reaction. One potential future direction is medicine upgraded psychotherapy for PTSD. Medications could possibly reinforce learning and memory, hinder fear, and encourage therapeutic commitment. Non-pharmacological improvement of treatment is likewise being investigated, such as rTMS, work out, and other cognitive preparing. Another potential road to build commitment and decrease dropout is through utilization of escalated treatment programs, in which patients go to massed different sessions inside a brief timeframe (e.g., one or 2 weeks) rather than week after week sessions spread out over several months (Watkins, Sprang & Rothbaum, 2018).

Of course, we all know that in the case of a person to be sure that it they have post-traumatic syndrome disorder, they must first have and show symptoms, and then be clinically diagnosed by a professional. After researching the signs and symptoms of PTSD I have uncovered quite a few that are associated with PTSD. Emotional & psychological symptoms of PTSD that I discovered include shock, denial, or disbelief; confusion, difficulty concentrating; anger, irritability, mood swings; anxiety and fear; guilt, shame, self-blame; withdrawing from others; feeling sad or hopeless; and feeling disconnected or numb. Physical symptoms of PTSD that I have discovered include insomnia or nightmares; fatigue; being frightened easily; finding it hard to concentrate; having a racing heartbeat; always on edge and agitated; constant aches and pains; and having constant tension in muscles (Help Guide, 2019). PTSD is diagnosed after an individual encounters side effects for a minimum of one month following a traumatic event. Yet, indications may not show up until months or even years after the traumatic event took place. PTSD is described by three fundamental sorts of symptoms: Re-encountering the traumatic event through unwanted troubling memories of the occasion through flashbacks, and bad dreams; emotional numbness and evasion of locations, individuals, and activities that are reminders of the traumatic event; and increased excitement such as trouble resting and focusing, feeling unsteady, and being quick to become disturbed and maddened (ADAA, 2018). To diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder a specialist will probably provide and perform a physical test to check for medical issues that might cause symptoms. The specialist will probably then do a physiological assessment that incorporates a discourse of signs and side effects the individual might be experiencing and the occasion or occasions that led up to them. Ultimately, the specialist will utilize the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), distributed by the American Psychiatric Association so as to know whether the individual ought to be determined as having PTSD. Diagnosis of PTSD expects introduction to an occasion that included death or conceivable risk of death, violence or serious damage. Introduction of PTSD can occur in at least one of these ways: You straightforwardly encountered the traumatic event; You saw, face to face, others experiencing the traumatic event; You learned somebody near you encountered or was compromised by the traumatic event; You are over and over presented to realistic details of traumatic events, for example, in the event that you are a first responder on call for the location of traumatic events (Mayo Clinic, 2018). The most utilized methods for treatment of PTSD are therapy, support groups, medication(s), and making lifestyle changes. These various methods enable an individual to return to the point that they can re-figure out how to be around what alarms them and NOT respond with fear, basically retraining their thoughts and physical responses (Mental Health America, 2019).

In conclusion, post-traumatic stress disorder is a complex a possibly exceptionally impairing and enduring disorder where the past is constantly present in individuals present by the fear solidified in memory of the awful event. In any case, PTSD additionally speaks to an opportunity for mental, physical and spiritual development because of the human capacity to adjust and flourish regardless of encountering misfortune and traumatic events. Trauma related issues are regular among the overall public, and such issues can influence physical and mental functions as well as utilization of health care services. Although a scope of methods both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical have been utilized for the administration of PTSD, results so far have been blended and there stays a pressing requirement for further looking into. Numerous patients don’t accomplish full side effect reduction with mental intercessions and different preliminaries of medicines are regularly expected to find out which medication treatment best suits an individual patient.


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