Real World Psychology Chapter 9

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Course Title: Real World Psychology

Chapter Number: Chapter 09

Question Type: Multiple Choice

1) The study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes throughout the lifespan is called

a) thanatology

b) neo-gerontology

c) developmental psychology

d) longitudinal psychology

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

2) Which of the following is true about developmental psychology?

a) It examines maturation, early experiences, and various stages of development.

b) It uses a theoretical approach that suggests that nature is more important than nurture in development.

c) It avoids controversial issues by focusing only on what can be proven through research.

d) It exclusively examines the mental growth of children’s development.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

3) Which of the following is a major area of debate in developmental psychology?

a) nature vs. tabula rasa

b) stability vs. change

c) young vs. old

d) early stages vs. later stages

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

4) Jasmine believes that personality is a trait that can change over time, whereas Silvis does not. What issue of developmental psychology does this difference address?

a) nature vs. nurture

b) stability vs. change

c) young vs. old

d) continuity stages

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

5) ________ is development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals.

a) Nurture

b) Natural progression

c) Maturation

d) Tabula rasa

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

6) The fact that we crawl before we walk is an example of

a) tabula rasa

b) maturation

c) a critical period

d) interactionist perspective

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

7) _________ is a period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shape the capacity for future development.

a) A maturation period

b) A critical period

c) The specificity stage

d) The tabula rasa stage

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

8) Imprinting is an example of

a) maturation

b) a critical period

c) tabula rasa

d) nature

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

9) What would a naturist say about Tiger Woods’ achievements in golf? His achievements are primarily due to

a) gradual and steady improvement

b) his innate athletic abilities

c) the support from his father

d) learning from the best teachers

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

10) Assad and Juana believe it is important to reinforce their baby’s curiosity and attempt to interact with her verbally. Assad and Juana believe that _____ is the major contributor to their child’s development.

a) nurture

b) sensation training

c) nature

d) maturation

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

11) Dr. Johan tends to believe in the _____ model of development, which says that changes occur at a relatively regular pace. Dr. Ziback tends to believe in the _____ model, which says that there are periods of rapid and abrupt change separated by periods of very little change.

a) nurturing; natural

b) uniform; stop–start

c) continuity; stage

d) stage; continuity

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

12) The “Wild Child” Genie’s story stresses the fact that there is (are) _____________ in language development.

a) maturation

b) critical periods

c) stages

d) continuity

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

13) Psychologists who emphasize stability believe that personal characteristics

a) are nearly all steady and unwavering over a person’s lifespan

b) vary considerably over a person’s lifespan

c) may vary considerably and some characteristics remain stable in most individuals

d) for some people they are nearly all quite stable, and for other people they vary considerably

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.1: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

14) _____ research studies several different groups of individuals at various ages, at one point in time, and provides information regarding _____.

a) Longitudinal; age differences

b) Cross-sectional; age differences

c) Longitudinal; age changes

d) Cross-sectional; age changes

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

15) The _____ method of developmental data collection follows one person (or a single group of people) over time, and provides information about _____.

a) longitudinal; age changes

b) cross-sectional; age changes

c) cohort; age differences

d) longitudinal; age differences

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

16) If a psychologist wanted to compare 6-year-old and 10-year-old children on recognition memory performance, the psychologist would use the _____ method of data collection.

a) cross-sectional

b) naturalistic observation

c) longitudinal

d) cohort

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

17) If a psychologist is interested in studying the stability of IQ scores over time, she should use the _____ method of data collection.

a) test–retest

b) longitudinal

c) case history

d) cross-sectional

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

18) Differences in age groups that reflect factors unique to a specific age group are called _____ effects.

a) generational

b) social environmental

c) operational

d) cohort

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

19) _____ effects are a major problem found in cross-sectional research.

a) Subjective

b) Cohort

c) Objective

d) Longitudinal

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

20) _____ studies are the most time-efficient method, whereas _____ studies provide the most in-depth information per participant.

a) Correlational; experimental

b) Fast-track; follow-up

c) Cross-sectional; longitudinal

d) Cohort-sequential; cohort-intensive

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

21) _____ studies provide more in-depth developmental information.

a) Experimental

b) Follow-up

c) Longitudinal

d) Cohort-intensive

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

22) Which of the following is an advantage of the cross-sectional study?

a) provides quick information about age differences

b) provides information about age changes

c) typically includes a smaller sample

d) increases confidence in results

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

23) Which one of the following is an advantage of the longitudinal study?

a) provides quick information about age differences

b) quick and less expensive

c) offers more in-depth information per participant

d) participants tend to stay and complete the whole study

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

24) Modern researchers sometimes use a combined _____ method with human development.

a) cohort and interactionist

b) maturation and cross-sectional

c) cohort and longitudinal

d) longitudinal and cross-sectional

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9: 1.2: Discuss theoretical debates and research approaches in developmental psychology.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

25) What is conception?

a) It is the fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm.

b) It is when the first cell has divided into two cells.

c) It is when the blastocyst is no larger than the period at the end of this sentence.

d) It is when fertilization occurs in the embryonic phase.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

26) At conception you were a single cell barely 1/175 of an inch in diameter, called a/an

a) fetus

b) embryo

c) zygote

d) ovum

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

27) The ______ connects the fetus to the mother’s uterus.

a) fallopian tube

b) ovary

c) placenta

d) cervix

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

28) The ___________ is the first stage of prenatal development (from conception to implantation), characterized by rapid cell division.

a) embryonic period

b) fetal period

c) critical period

d) germinal period

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

29) The correct order of the stages of pregnancy is

a) fetal, germinal, embryonic

b) germinal, fetal, embryonic

c) germinal, embryonic, fetal

d) embryonic, fetal, germinal

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

30) The germinal period

a) is about 4 weeks in duration

b) is when the fetus begins to develop

c) is the time when development of major organs takes place

d) begins at fertilization and ends with implantation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

31) The major body organs and systems develop during this period of pregnancy, from implantation through the eighth week.

a) embryonic

b) fetal

c) zygotic

d) germinal

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

32) The fetal period lasts from

a) conception to birth

b) implantation to birth

c) implantation to 8 weeks

d) 8 weeks to birth

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

33) Fertilization usually occurs in the

a) placenta

b) fallopian tube

c) uterus

d) ovum

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

34) The critical period for development, when exposure to disease prenatally can have the most devastating effects, is

a) at around 8 months

b) during the first 2 weeks

c) during the first 3 months

d) after 6 months

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

35) Which of the following is TRUE regarding a father’s contribution to the health of the fetus?

a) Fathers transmit genetically heritable diseases.

b) Sperm damaged by alcohol and other environmental toxins cannot fertilize an egg.

c) The placental barrier will protect a fetus whose mother is exposed to the father’s smoking.

d) Only fathers can transmit infectious diseases.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

36) Teratogens are _____ that can cause birth defects.

a) DNA fragments

b) environmental agents

c) recessive genes

d) dominant genes

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

37) The use of _____ during pregnancy is most associated with premature birth, low birth-weight infants, and fetal death.

a) nicotine

b) caffeine

c) aspirin

d) antibiotics

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

38) Jeremy was born with facial abnormalities and stunted growth, and is showing signs of delayed motor development and lowered intelligence. Jeremy is most likely suffering from

a) DNA syndrome

b) genetic abnormalities

c) fetal alcohol syndrome

d) prenatal exposure to nicotine

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

39) Exposure to X-rays during prenatal development is known to lead to

a) cancer

b) hyperactivity

c) inhibition of bone growth

d) deafness

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

40) Exposure to stress during prenatal development can increase the risk for

a) mental retardation

b) deafness

c) low birth weight

d) malformations

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

41) At birth, an infant’s head is _____ its body’s size, whereas in adulthood, the head is _____ its body’s size.

a) 1/3; 1/4

b) 1/3; 1/10

c) 1/4; 1/10

d) 1/4; 1/8

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

42) Which of the following is TRUE regarding brain development?

a) The weight of an infant’s brain is one-half that of an adult’s and reaches full adult weight by age 16.

b) The number of neurons in the infant brain at birth is about one-eighth the number in the adult brain.

c) Neurons grow in size because the number of axons, dendrites, and their connections increases.

d) Myelination peaks at age 12.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

43) The first motor movements a newborn exhibits are

a) instinctive

b) innate and voluntary

c) involuntary reflexes caused by stimulation

d) voluntary reflexes caused by stimulation

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

44) Tamara’s baby is a newborn and the baby’s first motor movements are

a) bowel movements

b) leg thrusts

c) facial expressions

d) reflexes

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

45) Angela’s baby, Justin, just learned to sit up on his own though he may need to be propped up a bit, and he likes to grasp toys, too. How old is Justin?

a) 2

b) 5.5

c) 10

d) 17.5

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

46) Lei-lei is developing at an average rate and she is starting to walk unassisted. How old is Lei-lei?

a) 5.5 months

b) 10 months

c) 12 months

d) 17.5 months

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

47) Which of the following sensory systems is MOST poorly developed at birth?

a) smell

b) taste

c) vision

d) touch

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

48) Regarding an infant’s sensory and perceptual development, which of the following would you expect?

a) vision to be 20/20 at birth

b) sense of pain to be highly developed at birth

c) no special recognition or preference for either breast milk or formula

d) very acute sense of hearing the slightest sound that can keep the infant awake

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

49) Studies indicate that ____ is well developed at birth.

a) vision

b) hearing

c) verbal abilities

d) fine motor control

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

50) Infant vision reaches 20/20 normal adult vision by

a) 6 months

b) 1 year

c) 2 years

d) 4 years

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.2: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

51) __________ refers to biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity.

a) The age of fertility

b) Prepubescence

c) Puberty

d) The adolescent climacteric

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

52) _____ is the psychological development that occurs during the period between childhood and adulthood.

a) Puberty

b) Identity

c) Autonomy

d) Adolescence

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

53) Floyd and Fiona are fraternal twins. With regard to adolescent growth spurts, you can predict that

a) Floyd will be the same height as Fiona until around age 19 in late adolescence

b) Fiona will be taller than Floyd between the ages of 10 and 14

c) Floyd will be taller than Fiona between the ages of 10 and 14

d) Fiona will be taller than Floyd until around age 19 in late adolescence

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

54) _____ is the onset of menstruation in females; _____ is the first ejaculation in males.

a) Premenstrual syndrome; emission

b) Primary menorrhea; expulsion

c) Menses; premature ejaculation

d) Menarche; spermarche

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

55) Pubic hair, breasts, facial hair, and deepening of the voice are called

a) signs of adolescence

b) sexual maturation

c) secondary sex characteristics

d) masculine and feminine attributes

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

56) Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?

a) development of ovaries

b) growth of pubic hair

c) development of breasts

d) deepening of the voice

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

57) Which of the following is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics?

a) thyroid gland

b) pituitary gland

c) testes

d) ovaries

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

58) Which of the following is CORRECT regarding menopause?

a) It is associated with gradual memory loss.

b) It occurs between the ages of 30 and 40.

c) It is the result of decreases in estrogen production.

d) It is associated with severe mood swings and loss of sexual interest.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

59) Which of the following is CORRECT regarding the male climacteric?

a) Men experience an increased testosterone and decreased sperm production as they age.

b) Men may experience a decline in sexual responsiveness as they age.

c) Men may become calmer and more sedentary.

d) Men may experience expected weight gain and loss of muscle strength at this time.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

60) The manager at the Acme company hired Tom, a 30-year-old man with the same qualifications as Alex, a 55-year-old applicant because the manager was concerned that Alex might have health problems or are sickly take too much time off. This is an example of

a) sexism

b) social norms

c) ageism

d) independent hiring practices

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

61) _____ was one of the first scientists to prove that a child’s cognitive processes are fundamentally different from those of an adult.

a) Baumrind

b) Beck

c) Piaget

d) Elkind

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

62) Cognitive structures that consist of a number of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experience are called

a) data points

b) thoughts

c) schemas

d) concepts

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

63) A child believes that any object that flies is a bird. This would be an example of

a) accommodation

b) assimilation

c) schemas

d) concepts

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

64) Assimilation occurs when new information is

a) adjusted

b) modified

c) absorbed into existing schemas

d) absorbed into new schemas

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

65) Accommodation occurs when new information

a) is used “as is”

b) fits into an existing schema

c) results in adjusting old or creating new schemas

d) is taken in and used

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

66) _____ occurs when existing schemas are used to interpret new information, whereas _____ involves changes and adaptations of the schemas.

a) Adaptation; accommodation

b) Adaptation; reversibility

c) Egocentrism; postschematization

d) Assimilation; accommodation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

67) If a child refers to a pig as a “doggie,” that child is _____ the pig into an existing cognitive structure.

a) encompassing

b) assimilating

c) operationalizing

d) accommodating

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

68) When a child learns that a truck is different from a car, even though both have four wheels and a metal body, _____ has occurred.

a) an adaptation

b) accommodation

c) an association

d) assimilation

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

69) When a typist changes from a conventional typewriter to a word processor, his typing schema will have to _____ to incorporate the new techniques needed for the new equipment.

a) assimilate

b) differentiate

c) accommodate

d) recapitulate

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

70) At birth, schemas are primarily _________ in nature.

a) reflexive

b) cognitive

c) perceptual

d) developmental

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

71) The four stages of Piaget’s cognitive development model are

a) assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, and association

b) sensory, motor, operational, and abstract

c) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

d) sensorimotor, precognitive, operational, and abstract operational

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

72) Object permanence is associated with Piaget’s

a) sensorimotor stage

b) preoperational stage

c) formal operational stage

d) concrete operational stage

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

73) When 5-month-old Jessica learns that mommy continues to exist even when she is quietly resting in another room, Jessica has developed

a) sensory permanence

b) perceptual constancy

c) perceptual permanence

d) object permanence

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

74) Egocentric thinking is associated with Piaget’s

a) sensorimotor stage

b) preoperational stage

c) formal operational stage

d) concrete operational stage

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

75) _____ refers to a young child’s inability to experience anyone else’s point of view.

a) Egocentrism

b) Social egoism

c) Ethnocentrism

d) Ego fantasy

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

76) A 4-year-old child is speaking on the phone with her grandmother, and instead of verbally responding to her grandmother’s questions, she shakes and nods her head. This child is experiencing

a) object permanence

b) egocentric thinking

c) imaginary thinking

d) animistic thinking

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

77) Which of the following best describes a child’s preoperational belief of animism?

a) My daddy wants a pony for his birthday.

b) If my ball is hidden behind the couch, it does not exist.

c) My truck moves because I pushed it with my hands.

d) The sun is shining because it is happy and smiling.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

78) Mitzy said, “I don’t think Superman is real because no one can really fly like that.” ark.” Mitzy’s statement best describes which of these developmental stages?

a) sensorimotor preoperational

b) preoperational

c) concrete operational

d) formal operational

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

79) Significant language advances tend to occur during what stage of cognitive development?

a) sensorimotor

b) preoperational

c) concrete operations

d) formal operations

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

80) Once a child can perform mental operations on concrete objects, and understand the principles of conservation and reversibility, she has reached Piaget’s _____ stage.

a) postoperational

b) preoperational

c) formal operational

d) concrete operational

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

81) John was shown a ball of string, then the teacher unraveled it so the string became one long piece that was more than 10 feet long. John knows that the ball of string has the same amount of string as when it is unraveled into one long piece. Which stage of Piaget’s cognitive development is John exhibiting?

a) sensory operation

b) formal operation

c) conservation

d) stability

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

82) The last type of conservation to develop during the concrete operational stage is that for

a) volume

b) length

c) area

d) substance

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

83) The ability to think abstractly or hypothetically occurs in Piaget’s _____ stage.

a) egocentric

b) postoperational

c) formal operational

d) concrete operational

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

84) Adolescent egocentrism is BEST characterized by a/an

a) personal fable and an imaginary audience

b) lot of time having sexual fantasies

c) ability for formal operational thinking

d) belief that they are the best at everything

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

85) The belief that an adolescent is constantly being watched and evaluated by others is characteristic of

a) an imaginary audience

b) a personal fable

c) hypothetical thinking

d) adolescent operationalism

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

86) Extreme forms of self-consciousness and concerns for physical appearance are common in adolescents, who tend to exhibit the early formal operational characteristic called

a) the personal fable

b) adolescent egocentrism

c) the imaginary audience

d) the egocentric fable

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

87) Which of the following statements best describes Piaget’s concept of personal fable?

a) Mary believes that everyone on the soccer team was staring at her when she showed up without her uniform.

b) Mary tells her mother that nobody understands what it feels like to not have a date for the prom.

c) Mary understands that her grandparents also felt awkward as teenagers, too.

d) Before applying for graduate school, Mary asks herself what she does best and what work she enjoys.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

88) The personal fable of adolescence is a result of _____ differentiation from others, while the imaginary audience of adolescence is a result of _____ differentiation from others.

a) too much; too little

b) too little; too much

c) overt; covert

d) covert; overt

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

89) The personal fable and risk taking that occur during adolescent egocentrism may be due primarily to the underdevelopment of what part of the brain?

a) amygdala

b) frontal lobes

c) occipital lobe

d) hypothalamus

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

90) Synaptic pruning refers to the _____ that make the remaining neurons more efficient.

a) decrease in myelinated synapses

b) decrease in the gap between neurons due to dendrite enlargement

c) reduction of axons

d) destruction of unneeded synaptic connections

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

91) The zone of proximal development refers to

a) belief that an adolescent is special and unique, and that they alone are having thoughts and feelings that no one else understands or experiences

b) the area between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent

c) the idea that moral reasoning is based primarily on what is “right” and what is “wrong” as indicated by society’s rules

d) the idea that in the first year of life, an infant’s primary caretaker can teach that the world is a safe place and that people can be trusted

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.3: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

92) Vygotsky’s term for providing support during the learning process that is tailored to the needs of the student is instructional

a) scaffolding

b) modeling

c) structuring

d) accommodating

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.3: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

93) Critics have suggested that Piaget underestimated the

a) cognitive abilities of adolescents

b) genetic influences on cognition

c) effect of cultural experiences on motivation

d) social abilities of infants and young children

Answer: b

Difficulty: Hard
Bloom’s: Evaluation

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.3: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

94) _____ is a strong affectionate bond with special others that endures over time.

a) Bonding

b) Attachment

c) Love

d) Intimacy

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

95) According to Harlow and Zimmerman’s research with cloth and wire surrogate mothers, _____ is the most important variable for attachment.

a) availability of food

b) contact comfort

c) sharing a genetic bond

d) imprinting

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

96) According to Ainsworth’s research using the strange situation procedure, _____ infants used the mother as a safe base from which to explore the environment.

a) disorganized/disoriented

b) secure

c) anxious/ambivalent

d) anxious/avoidant

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

97) According to Ainsworth’s studies on infant attachment, if Jocelyn leaves her baby Henry in a room and he does not react or show much emotion when she leaves, then Henry is exhibiting what type of behavior?

a) disorganized/disoriented

b) secure

c) anxious/ambivalent

d) anxious/avoidant

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

98) According to Ainsworth’s studies on infant attachment, if Cassie leaves her infant Dante in the room and he cries, but then he has mixed reactions when she returns, then Dante is exhibiting what behavior?

a) anxious/ambivalent

b) caregiver based

c) insecurely attached

d) dependent

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

99) In Ainsworth’s studies on infant attachment, the _____ infants often seem either confused or apprehensive in the presence of the mother.

a) anxious/ambivalent

b) caregiver based

c) insecurely attached

d) dependent

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

100) Eric demands that his mother bring him a glass of water even though he can do it himself, and he disobeys her suggestion that he get his own glass of water. He throws the glass on the floor. According to Baumrind, it is MOST likely that his parents are engaged in _____ parenting.

a) abusive

b) authoritarian

c) authoritative

d) permissive

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

101) Mr. and Mrs. Miaki think that children should not speak at the dinner table unless an adult asks them a question. They stress obedience to their house rules and proper table manners; they expect mature behavior in their children. Baumrind would classify the Miaki’s as _____ parents.

a) inflexible

b) authoritative

c) authoritarian

d) laissez faire

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

102) Thornton is easily upset and will throw his toys in a tantrum, at other times he will cry if he does not get what he wants. Thornton sometimes pulls his younger sister’s hair when he is angry. He does not communicate well with friends or adults. According to Baumrind, it is MOST likely that his parents are engaged in _____ parenting.

a) abusive

b) authoritarian

c) authoritative

d) permissive

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

103) _____ parents set firm limits, encourage increasing levels of responsibility, and are sensitive and caring toward their children. _____ parents value unquestioning obedience and mature responsibility, and remain detached and aloof from their children.

a) Democratic; dictatorial

b) Authoritative; authoritarian

c) Democratic; authoritative

d) Permissive; nonpermissive

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

104) Jonas always does his homework without being told, and he gets himself ready for school, and prepares his own breakfast; he won the science fair competition at his school this year. According to Baumrind, which parenting style is most likely to produce a child like Jonas?

a) permissive

b) autonomous

c) authoritative

d) authoritarian

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

105) The ability to distinguish between right and wrong is called

a) ethics

b) morality

c) empathy

d) sympathy

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

106) To study moral development, Kohlberg

a) observed moral behavior in natural settings

b) collected data by observing changes in moral reasoning of subjects as they aged

c) used archival data from newspapers regarding moral behavior

d) collected data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

107) Five-year-old Tyler believes “bad things are what you get punished for.” Tyler is at Kohlberg’s _____ level of morality.

a) concrete

b) preconventional

c) postconventional

d) punishment oriented

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

108) Aretha wanted all of the grape flavored gum from Halloween, so she made a deal with her brother that if he gave her his grape gum, she would help him get an extra cookie at dinner time. According to Kohlberg, what level of moral development is this?

a) preconventional

b) postconventional

c) conventional

d) social contract

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

109) Adults who take “petty” office supplies from the workplace, and believe that this is not “as bad” as stealing office furniture are demonstrating the _____ orientation stage of moral development.

a) punishment and obedience

b) instrumental exchange

c) social contract

d) law and order

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

110) Kohlberg’s second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society, is called

a) postconventional

b) conventional

c) preconventional

d) universal ethics orientation

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

111) Sarah knows that she should obey the rules and always stops when the traffic light is red. Her friend Sophie knows this rule, too, but when no one is around late at night she goes through the red light. Sarah is at what level of moral development?

a) instrumental exchange

b) social contract

c) conventional

d) postconventional

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

112) Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring to school, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg’s _____ level of morality.

a) conformity

b) approval seeking

c) conventional

d) preconventional

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

113) Officers in World War II, the Vietnam War, and the war in Bosnia have explained some of their behavior with the reasoning: “I was just following orders.” This is an example of which stage of moral development?

a) punishment–obedience orientation

b) social-contract orientation

c) military-contract orientation

d) law and order orientation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

114) Which of the following is TRUE of the postconventional level of moral development?

a) Morality is defined in terms of abstract principles and values.

b) Moral reasoning is based on compliance with the rules and values of society.

c) Empathy for others is important, but social approval is still a primary concern.

d) Adherence to individual values and beliefs is more important than the consequences on others.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

115) According to Kohlberg, an officer in the military is LEAST likely to obey orders to rape and pillage in a vanquished town if he has achieved the _____ orientation of moral reasoning.

a) preconventional

b) law and order

c) justice and caring

d) universal ethics

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

116) There are no other cars on the road at 3:00 AM and you come to a stop sign. You decide not to drive through it, but instead you follow the traffic laws and stop because you believe the rules are legitimate and good for public welfare. You are demonstrating the _____ orientation stage of moral development.

a) punishment and obedience

b) law and order

c) social contract

d) instrumental exchange

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

117) Someone who burns his country’s flag just because the law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development, whereas someone who burns his country’s flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.

a) punishment and obedience; individual principle

b) individual principle; individual principle

c) law and order; social contract

d) individual principle; instrumental exchange

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

118) The belief that adult personality reflects how an individual has met or resolved the challenges and crises that occur in eight stages of development is the definition of

a) Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development

b) Freud’s psychosexual stages of development

c) Thomas and Chess’ theory of temperament development

d) Kohlberg’s model of moral development

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

119) What is the crisis of young adults as defined by Erikson’s psychosocial stages?

a) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

b) Intimacy vs. isolation

c) Industry vs. inferiority

d) Ego integrity vs. despair

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

120) During the _____ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying, or painful and unrewarding. During the _____ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.

a) initiative vs. guilt; autonomy vs. doubt and shame

b) industry vs. inferiority; ego integrity vs. despair

c) ego integrity vs. despair; intimacy vs. isolation

d) trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inferiority

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

121) Chelsea is a toddler who has authoritarian parents. Her parents do not allow her to make any decisions on her own. As a result, Chelsea may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.

a) autonomy vs. shame and doubt

b) trust vs. mistrust

c) initiative vs. guilt

d) industry vs. inferiority

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

122) Every time her mother tells her to do something, Sue-Lee says, “No!” even if she really wants to do what her mother says. It is MOST likely that Sue-Lee’s assertion of independence is characteristic of the _____ stage of development.

a) identity

b) autonomy

c) initiative

d) industry

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

123) Which of the following children is working on the challenge of initiative vs. guilt in Erikson’s psychosocial model of development?

a) Two-year-old Hun just used the potty-chair properly for the first time.

b) Ali, at age 10, worked hard and is very proud of her first “B” in math.

c) Five-year-old Brian tried to climb the tree in the backyard, and fell down three times.

d) Sixteen-year-old Sushma got up the nerve to ask a boy in her class to the Sadie Hawkins dance.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

124) According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the “successful” completion of the first four stages?

a) Trust, autonomy, industry, identity

b) Autonomy, initiative, industry, identity

c) Trust, autonomy, initiative, industry

d) Identity, autonomy, industry, initiative

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

125) In Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a sense of self and a role in society is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?

a) generativity vs. stagnation

b) ego integrity vs. despair

c) identity vs. role confusion

d) intimacy vs. isolation

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

126) Robert is an adolescent who is sullen and withdrawn. He does not seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.

a) autonomy vs. shame and doubt

b) identity vs. role confusion

c) initiative vs. guilt

d) industry vs. inferiority

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

127) According to Erikson’s theory, the dominant crisis of adolescence concerns

a) resolving sexual conflicts

b) establishing an identity

c) deciding on life goals

d) making a place for oneself in adult society

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

128) Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of

a) wholeness

b) direction

c) maturity

d) intimacy

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

129) Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others. As a result, she avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the developmental challenge of

a) intimacy vs. isolation

b) ego integrity vs. despair

c) trust vs. autonomy

d) initiative vs. industry

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

130) According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves

a) creativity in one’s work and activities

b) taking time out to appreciate the beauties of nature

c) concern with one’s own well-being and the well-being of family members

d) expanding one’s concern beyond the immediate family group to the next generation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

131) Forty-year-old Carl is very proud that he has the fastest car on the road and the finest house on the block, but feels lonely and isolated when he goes home to his family. Carl is likely to be in Erikson’s _____ stage of development.

a) ego integrity vs. despair

b) generativity vs. stagnation

c) intimacy vs. isolation

d) identity vs. role confusion

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

132) Emily is looking back at the last few decades of her life. She feels deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Emily is likely to be in Erikson’s _____ stage of development.

a) ego integrity vs. despair

b) intimacy vs. isolation

c) industry vs. remorse

d) generativity vs. stagnation

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

133) According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the “successful” completion of the second four stages?

a) Identity, intimacy, generativity, ego integrity

b) Ego integrity, trust, intimacy, generativity

c) Initiative, intimacy, generativity, ego integrity

d) Identity, autonomy, intimacy, generativity

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

134) _____ refers to the psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness.

a) Sex differences

b) Gender

c) Sexual role

d) Gender role

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

135) Your _____ is related to societal expectations for normal and appropriate male or female behavior.

a) gender identity

b) gender role

c) sexual identity

d) sexual orientation

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

136) Eva Marie has learned that society expects girls to play with dolls rather than trucks, which means she understands her

a) sexual orientation

b) gender schema

c) gender role

d) gender

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

137) By the age of _________, children are well aware of gender roles.

a) 10

b) 2

c) 5

d) 1

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

138) Which of the following is an example of a gender schema?

a) Boys should play with trucks and girls should play with dolls.

b) Girls are taller than boys prior to adolescence.

c) Boys and girls are of equal strength until adolescence.

d) Boys and girls are sweet and cute until adolescence.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

APA Goal 2: Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking

139) The belief that children actively create internal rules about appropriate gender behavior is consistent with

a) biopsychosocial theory

b) the androgyny hypothesis

c) social-learning theory

d) cognitive developmental theory

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

140) A combination of both male and female personality traits is called

a) heterosexuality

b) homosexuality

c) transsexualism

d) androgyny

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

APA Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology

141) The results of a cross-sectional marketing study to determine how age affects people’s beliefs about family purchases and financial planning were criticized on the grounds that the data was influenced by cohort effects. This means that

a) some of the subjects belonged to ethnic minorities

b) the subjects were self-selected by their friends and neighbors

c) the older groups of subjects lived during the depression

d) only 63% of the questionnaires were returned

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Studying Development

Learning Objective: 9.1

APA Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology

142) Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?

a) Embryonic period: development of major body organs

b) Conception: development of blastocyst

c) Germinal period: ovulation and implantation

d) Fetal period: rapid weight gain and “detailing” of body organs and systems

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9.2

APA Goal 3: Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

143) Which of the following is CORRECT regarding brain development?

a) The weight of an infant’s brain is one-half that of an adult’s and reaches full adult weight by age 16.

b) The number of neurons in the infant brain at birth is about one-eighth the number in the adult brain.

c) Axon and dendrite connections increase.

d) Myelination peaks at age 12.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9.2

APA Goal 3: Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology

144) Tesia said, “The rain quit falling because I wanted to go out to play.” This is an example of _____, which indicates that Tesia is in the _____ of cognitive development.

a) animism; sensorimotor stage

b) subjective permanence; preoperational

c) egocentrism; preoperational stage

d) conservation; concrete operational stage

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9.3

APA Goal 4: Application of Psychology

145) Eric is demanding and disobedient, has no respect for the property or rights of others, and is impulsive, immature, and out of control. According to Baumrind, it is MOST likely that his parents are engaged in _____ parenting.

a) abusive

b) authoritarian

c) authoritative

d) permissive

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9.4

APA Goal 4: Application of Psychology

Question Type: Essay

146) Briefly describe early childhood changes in the brain, motor abilities, and sensory/perceptual development.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.1: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

147) Contrast the terms PUBERTY and ADOLESCENCE, and list the major physical changes that occur during puberty, middle age, and later adulthood.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

148) Discuss some of the physical issues that are confronted during middle age and late adulthood and their implications for psychological well-being.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Physical Development

Learning Objective: 9: 2.3: Summarize physical changes that occur in humans from birth through adulthood.

149) Define and illustrate the concepts of schema, assimilation, and accommodation.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.1: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

150) List and describe the characteristics in each of Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development. Illustrate a child’s abilities and limits at each level of development.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Cognitive Development

Learning Objective: 9: 3.2: Describe cognitive development’s stages and theories.

151) Discuss Baumrind’s different parenting styles, and how each has a different effect on the development of a child.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Comprehension

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.1: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

152) Describe the moral reasoning someone at each of Kohlberg’s stages would use for why the following statement is morally correct: “Cheating is wrong.” What are some of the criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory?

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.2: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

153) List and describe Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development, illustrating each with a successful and unsuccessful resolution.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Application

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.3: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

154) Compare and contrast individual differences based on sex and individual differences based on gender.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Bloom’s: Analysis

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.

155) What is an androgynous gender role, and what are some of the advantages of androgyny?

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Bloom’s: Knowledge

Section Reference: Social-Emotional Development

Learning Objective: 9: 4.4: Describe Kohlberg’s and Erikson’s theories of development.




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